Television Address On End of Crisis 11/2/62 - History

Television Address On End of Crisis 11/2/62 - History

My fellow citizens:

I want to take this opportunity to report on the conclusions which this Government has reached on the basis of yesterday's aerial photographs which will be made available tomorrow, as well as other indications, namely, that the Soviet missile bases in Cuba are being dismantled, their missiles and related equipment are being crated, and the fixed installations at these sites are being destroyed.

The United States intends to follow closely the completion of this work through a variety of means, including aerial surveillance, until such time as an equally satisfactory international means of verification is effected.

While the quarantine remains in effect, we are hopeful that adequate procedures can be developed for international inspection of Cuba-bound cargoes. The International Committee of the Red Cross, in our view, would be an appropriate agent in this matter.

The continuation of these measures in air and sea, until the threat to peace posed by these offensive weapons is gone, is in keeping with our pledge to secure their withdrawal or elimination from this hemisphere. It is in keeping with the resolution of the OAS, and it is in keeping with the exchange of letters with Chairman Khrushchev of October 27th and 28th.

Progress is now being made towards the restoration of peace in the Caribbean, and it is our firm hope and purpose that this progress shall go forward. We will continue to keep the American people informed on this vital matter.

Thank you.

NOTE: This address was broadcast at 5:30 p.m. from the Fish Room at the White House.


1950s

The 1950s (pronounced nineteen-fifties commonly abbreviated as the "Fifties" or the " '50s") (among other variants) was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1950, and ended on December 31, 1959.

Top, L-R: U.S. Marines engaged in street fighting during the Korean War, circa late September 1950 The first polio vaccine is developed by Jonas Salk.

Centre, L-R: US tests its first thermonuclear bomb with code name Ivy Mike in 1952. A 1954 thermonuclear test, code named Castle Romeo, is shown here In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista in the Cuban Revolution, which results in the creation of the first and only communist government in the Western hemisphere Elvis Presley becomes the leading figure of the newly popular music genre of rock and roll in the mid-1950s.

Bottom, L-R: Smoke rises from oil tanks on Port Said following the invasion of Egypt by Israel, United Kingdom and France as part of the Suez Crisis in late 1956 The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, in October 1957. This starts the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States of America

Throughout the decade, the world continued its recovery from World War II, aided by the post-World War II economic expansion. The period also saw great population growth with increased birth rates and the emergence of the baby boomer generation. Despite this recovery, the Cold War developed from its modest beginnings in the late 1940s to a heated competition between the Soviet Union and the United States by the early 1960s. The ideological clash between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, with conflicts including the Korean War in the early 1950s, the Cuban Revolution, the beginning of the Vietnam War in French Indochina, and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons (such as RDS-37 and Upshot–Knothole), the tense geopolitical situation created a politically conservative climate. In the United States, a wave of anti-communist sentiment known as the Second Red Scare resulted in Congressional hearings by both houses in Congress. The beginning of decolonization in Africa and Asia also took place in this decade and accelerated in the following decade.


Contents

Setting Edit

The main story is set in Walton's Mountain, a fictional mountain-area community in fictitious Jefferson County, Virginia.

The real place upon which the stories are based is the community of Schuyler in Nelson County, Virginia.

The time period is from 1933 to 1946, during the Great Depression and World War II, during the presidential administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman. The year 1933 is suggested by a reference to the opening of the Century of Progress exposition in Chicago, a brief shot of an automobile registration, and it is divulged in episode 5 that the date is in the spring of 1933. [3] The last episode of season one, "An Easter Story," is set in February – April 1934. The year 1934 takes 2 seasons to cover, while some successive years are covered over the course of a few months. [4]

The series finale, "The Revel," revolves around a party and the invitation date is given as June 4, 1946. A span of 13 years is therefore covered in nine seasons. There are some chronological inconsistencies, most of which do not hinder the storyline.

The first 3 reunion movies (A Wedding on Walton's Mountain, Mother's Day on Walton's Mountain, and A Day for Thanks on Walton's Mountain), all produced in 1982, are set in 1947. Of the later reunions, A Walton Thanksgiving Reunion, filmed in 1993, is set in 1963, and revolves around President John F. Kennedy's assassination. A Walton Wedding, made in 1995, is set in 1964, and A Walton Easter, filmed in 1997, is set in 1969.

The series began relating stories that occurred 39 years in the past and ended with its last reunion show set 28 years in the past.

Story Edit

The story is about the family of John Walton Jr. (known as John-Boy): his 6 siblings, his parents John and Olivia Walton, and paternal grandparents Zebulon "Zeb" and Esther Walton. John-Boy is the oldest of the children (17 years old in the beginning), [5] who becomes a journalist and novelist. Each episode is narrated at the opening and closing by a middle-aged John Jr. (voiced by author Earl Hamner on whom John-Boy is based). John Sr. manages to eke out a living for his family by operating a lumber mill with the help of his sons as they grow older. The family income is augmented by some small-scale farming, and John occasionally hunts to put meat on the table. In the simpler days of their country youth, all of the children are rambunctious and curious, but as times grow tough, the children slowly depart from the innocent, carefree days of walking everywhere barefoot while clad in overalls and hand-sewn pinafores, and into the harsh, demanding world of adulthood and responsibility.

The family shares hospitality with relatives and strangers as they are able. The small community named after their property is also home to folk of various income levels, ranging from the well-to-do Baldwin sisters, 2 elderly spinsters who distill moonshine that they call "Papa's recipe" Ike Godsey, postmaster and owner of the general store with his somewhat snobbish wife Corabeth (a Walton cousin she calls her husband "Mr. Godsey") an African-American couple, Verdie and Harley Foster Maude Gormley, a sassy octogenarian artist who paints on wood Flossie Brimmer, a friendly though somewhat gossipy widow who runs a nearby boarding house and Yancy Tucker, a good-hearted handyman with big plans but little motivation. Jefferson County sheriff Ep Bridges, who fought alongside John in World War I, keeps law and order in Walton's Mountain. The entire family (except for John) attends a Baptist church, of which Olivia and Grandma Esther are the most regular attendees.

In the signature scene that closes almost every episode, the family house is enveloped in darkness, save for 1, 2 or 3 lights in the upstairs bedroom windows. Through voice-overs, 2 or more characters make some brief comments related to that episode's events, and then bid each other goodnight, after which the lights go out.

After completing high school, John-Boy attends fictional Boatwright University in the fictional nearby town of Westham. He later goes to New York City to work as a journalist.

During the latter half of the 1976–77 season, Grandma Esther Walton suffers a stroke and returns home shortly before the death of her husband, Grandpa Zeb Walton (reflecting Ellen Corby's real-life stroke and the death of Will Geer they were the actors who portrayed those characters).

During the series' last few years, Mary Ellen and Ben start their own families Erin, Jason and John-Boy are married in later television movie sequels. Younger children Jim-Bob and Elizabeth struggle to find and cement true love.

World War II deeply affects the family. All four Walton boys enlist in the military. Mary Ellen's physician husband, Curtis "Curt" Willard, is sent to Pearl Harbor and is reported to have perished in the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941. Years later, Mary Ellen hears of sightings of her "late" husband, investigates and finds him alive (played by another actor), but brooding over his war wounds and living under an assumed name. She divorces him and later remarries.

John-Boy's military plane is shot down, while Olivia becomes a volunteer at the VA hospital and is seen less and less. She eventually develops tuberculosis and enters an Arizona sanitarium. Olivia's cousin, Rose Burton, moves in at the Walton house to look after the family. Two years later, John Sr. moves to Arizona to be with Olivia. Grandma appears in only a handful of episodes during the eighth season. She was usually said to be visiting relatives in nearby Buckingham County. Consistent with the effects of Ellen Corby's actual stroke, Grandma rarely speaks during the remainder of the series, usually limited to uttering one-word lines such as "No!"

Six feature-length movies were made after the series run. Set from 1947 to 1969, they aired between 1982 and 1997.

Episodes Edit

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedRankRating
First airedLast aired
PilotDecember 19, 1971 ( 1971-12-19 ) N/AN/A
125September 14, 1972 ( 1972-09-14 ) April 19, 1973 ( 1973-04-19 ) 1920.6 [a]
225September 13, 1973 ( 1973-09-13 ) March 14, 1974 ( 1974-03-14 ) 228.1
325September 12, 1974 ( 1974-09-12 ) March 6, 1975 ( 1975-03-06 ) 825.5
425September 11, 1975 ( 1975-09-11 ) March 4, 1976 ( 1976-03-04 ) 1422.9 [b]
525September 23, 1976 ( 1976-09-23 ) March 17, 1977 ( 1977-03-17 ) 1522.3 [c]
626September 15, 1977 ( 1977-09-15 ) March 30, 1978 ( 1978-03-30 ) 2020.8 [d]
724September 21, 1978 ( 1978-09-21 ) March 22, 1979 ( 1979-03-22 ) 37 [6] 19.0 [6]
824September 20, 1979 ( 1979-09-20 ) March 13, 1980 ( 1980-03-13 ) N/AN/A
922November 27, 1980 ( 1980-11-27 ) June 4, 1981 ( 1981-06-04 ) 3018.6
TV Movies6February 22, 1982 ( 1982-02-22 ) April 27, 1997 ( 1997-04-27 ) N/AN/A
  1. ^ Tied with The Partridge Family and Medical Center
  2. ^ Tied with M*A*S*H
  3. ^ Tied with Little House on the Prairie
  4. ^ Tied with The ABC Sunday Night Movie

The following is a brief summary of the main characters. See List of The Waltons characters for a more complete list.

  • John "John-Boy" Walton Jr. (Richard Thomas, seasons 1–5, guest season 6, three movie sequels Robert Wightman, seasons 8–9 and one movie sequel), the eldest of the 7 children
  • John Walton Sr. (Ralph Waite, seasons 1-8, 8 episodes of season 9 and all movie sequels), the family patriarch (Andrew Duggan starred as John Sr. in The Homecoming movie only)
  • Olivia Walton (Michael Learned, seasons 1–7, guest season 8, and 4 movies), the matriarch (Patricia Neal, starred as Olivia in The Homecoming movie only)
  • Zebulon "Grandpa" Walton (Will Geer, seasons 1–6), John's father (Edgar Bergen starred as Zebulon in The Homecoming movie only)
  • Esther "Grandma" Walton (Ellen Corby, seasons 1–5 & 7, 2 episodes in seasons 6 and 8, and in 5 movies), John's mother
  • Jason Walton (Jon Walmsley, entire series and 6 movies), second-oldest brother musically talented
  • Mary Ellen Walton (Judy Norton Taylor, entire series and 6 movies), headstrong oldest daughter becomes a nurse
  • Erin Walton (Mary Elizabeth McDonough, entire series and 6 movies), second Walton daughter works as a telephone operator and as manufacturing supervisor
  • Benjamin "Ben” Walton (Eric Scott, entire series and 6 movies), third Walton son has an entrepreneurial spirit
  • James Robert "Jim-Bob" Walton (David W. Harper, entire series and 6 movies), youngest Walton son mechanically inclined
  • Joseph Zebulon Walton, twin to "Jim Bob", died at birth (reference Season 4, episode 16 The Secret)
  • Elizabeth Walton (Kami Cotler, entire series and 6 movies), youngest of the 7 children
  • Ike Godsey Joe Conley, entire series, proprietor of the general mercantile
  • Corabeth Walton Godsey (Ronnie Claire Edwards), seasons 3-9, John Walton's cousin
  • Curtis Willard (Tom Bower, seasons 5–7, and 1 episode in season 9), Mary Ellen's husband
  • Cindy Walton (Leslie Winston, seasons 7-9 and 4 of the reunion movies), Ben's wife
  • Rose Burton (Peggy Rea, seasons 8–9 and 1 sequel), Olivia's matronly cousin who fills in as matriarch during Olivia's absence

Inspiration Edit

Earl Hamner's rural childhood growing up in the unincorporated community of Schuyler, Virginia, provided the basis for the setting and many of the storylines of The Waltons. His family and the community provided many life experiences which aided in the characters, values, area, and human-interest stories of his books, movies, and television series. Hamner provided the voice-over of the older John-Boy, usually heard at the beginning and end of each episode.

John-Boy Walton's fictional alma mater, Boatwright University, is patterned after Richmond College, which became part of the University of Richmond on Boatwright Drive near Westham Station in The West End of Richmond, Virginia, about 70 miles east of Schuyler.

Television film Edit

The Homecoming: A Christmas Story (1971) was not made as a pilot for a series, but it was so popular that it led to CBS initially commissioning one season of episodes based on the same characters, and the result was The Waltons. [7] Except for the Walton children and Grandma Esther Walton, the characters were all recast for the TV series. The musical score was by Oscar-winning composer Jerry Goldsmith and was later released on an album by Film Score Monthly paired with James Horner's score for the 1982 TV movie Rascals and Robbers: The Secret Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. (Goldsmith also scored several episodes of the first season, but the producers believed his TV movie theme was too gentle and requested he write a new theme for the series. [8] )

Filming Edit

The town of Walton's Mountain was built in the rear area of the main lot at Warner Bros. Studios, bordering the Los Angeles River, but the mountain itself was part of the Hollywood Hills range opposite Warner studios in Burbank, California, the reverse side of which, and slightly to the east, is Mount Lee and the Hollywood Sign. The Waltons house façade was built in the back of the Warner Brothers lot. After the series concluded, the set was destroyed. For the reunion shows, a replica Waltons' house façade was built on the Here Come the Brides set on the Columbia Ranch studio, now part of the Warner Brothers studios. The Waltons' house is still used as scenery at Warner Brothers. For example, it served as the Dragonfly Inn on Gilmore Girls.

Some sources indicate CBS put the show on its fall 1972 schedule in response to congressional hearings on the quality of television. Backlash from a 1971 decision to purge most rural-oriented shows from the network lineup may have also been a factor. The network gave The Waltons an undesirable timeslot – Thursdays at 8 p.m – opposite 2 popular programs: The Flip Wilson Show on NBC and The Mod Squad on ABC. [10] "The rumor was that they put it against Flip Wilson and The Mod Squad because they didn't think it would survive. They thought, 'We can just tell Congress America doesn't want to see this'," Kami Cotler, who played Elizabeth Walton, said in a 2012 interview. [10] However, CBS had enough faith in the show to devise a full-page newspaper ad flanked with the show's positive reviews, urging people to watch the show. Radically increased ratings were attributed to this ad, saving The Waltons. [11]

Ralph Waite was reluctant to audition for the part of John Walton because he didn't want to be tied to a long-running TV series, but his agent persuaded him by saying, "It will never sell. You do the pilot. You pick up a couple of bucks and then you go back to New York." [10]

Accolades Edit

The Waltons won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series in 1973. Also in 1973 Richard Thomas won the Emmy for Lead Actor in a Drama Series. Michael Learned won the Emmy for Lead Actress in a Drama Series 3 times (1973, 1974, and 1976). Ellen Corby was also a three-time winner in the Supporting Actress category, winning in 1973, 1975, and 1976. Will Geer was awarded the Supporting Actor Emmy in 1975. Veteran actress Beulah Bondi won an Emmy in 1977 for Lead Actress in a Single Performance for her guest appearance as Martha Corrine Walton in the episode "The Pony Cart" (Episode #111). She first appeared in The Waltons episode "The Conflict" (Episode #51) as the widow of Zeb Walton's brother.

The series itself earned a Peabody Award for its first season. [12] In 2013, TV Guide ranked The Waltons No. 34 on its list of the 60 Best Series of All Time. [13]

In 2017, from March 20 to March 24 INSP network remembered the life of Earl Hamner Jr. (who had died in 2016) by featuring clips of interviews (once per episode) with him about his time involved with The Waltons during the breaks while its syndicated reruns aired from 3-5pm and again at 7pm.

Cultural significance Edit

On January 27, 1992, then-President George H. W. Bush said, "We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to make American families a lot more like the Waltons and a lot less like the Simpsons." [14] In response, The Simpsons made a short animated segment for a repeat showing of the episode "Stark Raving Dad", where the family watches the speech, and Bart remarks, "Hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're prayin' for an end to the Depression, too." [15]

The Walton's Reunion Movie Collection:

  1. A Wedding on Walton's Mountain (1982)
  2. Mother's Day on Walton's Mountain (1982)
  3. A Day for Thanks on Walton's Mountain (1982)
  4. A Walton Thanksgiving Reunion (1993)
  5. A Walton Wedding (1995)
  6. A Walton Easter (1997)

DVD releases Edit

Warner Home Video has released all nine seasons and six TV movies of The Waltons on DVD in Region 1. Seasons 1–4 have been released in Region 2. The pilot movie, The Homecoming: A Christmas Story, was released by Paramount Home Entertainment. Lorimar produced the series, CBS produced the pilot film, which is why Paramount, under CBS Home Entertainment, handles home video rights for The Homecoming.

German-release DVDs provide German or English soundtrack options, with dubbed German voices, or the original English soundtrack, although episode titles, in German, are not always either literal or precise translations of the original English-language titles.

DVD name Episodes
Region 1 Region 2 (UK) Region 4 (AU)
The Homecoming: A Christmas Story N/A September 23, 2003 N/A N/A
The Complete 1st Season 24 May 11, 2004 November 1, 2004 November 11, 2015
The Complete 2nd Season 24 April 26, 2005 July 3, 2006 March 9, 2016
The Complete 3rd Season 24 April 25, 2006 September 11, 2006 May 11, 2016
The Complete 4th Season 24 January 23, 2007 March 5, 2007 July 13, 2016
The Complete 5th Season 24 May 8, 2007 September 12, 2007 March 15, 2017
The Complete 6th Season 22 January 8, 2008 March 20, 2008 August 9, 2017
The Complete 7th Season 23 April 29, 2008 N/A November 8, 2017
The Complete 8th Season 24 January 6, 2009 N/A March 7, 2018
The Complete 9th Season 22 April 28, 2009 N/A March 7, 2018
TV Movie Collection (not including the original movie) 6 January 26, 2010 N/A N/A

Streaming Edit

Seasons 1–9 are available via streaming in SD as well as HD through services such as Amazon Prime Video. [16]

Lorimar sold the distribution rights of The Waltons to Warner Bros. Television to avoid a lawsuit owing to the similarities between the series and the film Spencer's Mountain (1963), which Warner owned. [17] Warner Bros. acquired Lorimar in 1989, and has continued to syndicate the series ever since.

Reruns have aired in the U.S. on MeTV since January 1, 2020, [18] and also on INSP and Hallmark Drama, and formerly aired on Hallmark Channel. In Canada, The Waltons airs on Vision TV and BookTelevision.

In the UK, the series was broadcast on BBC 2 and BBC 1 and during the 1970s/1980s – the first 3 seasons were broadcast on BBC 2 from February 18, 1974 [19] to May 17, 1976, [20] on Mondays at 20.00 GMT, and seasons 4 and 5 were shown on BBC 1 from September 5, 1976 [21] to August 30, 1977, [22] on Sundays at 16.10 in 1976 and Tuesdays at 19.00 through 1977. After that, seasons 6-9 would be broadcast on BBC 2 again, starting on April 30, 1979 [23] and concluding in April 1983. [24] The 3 reunion TV movies filmed in 1982 were also shown on BBC 2 from December 21 to December 28, 1983. [25] [26] [27] The show was repeated on Channel 4 in the 1990s. It last aired on Sony Channel until March 31, 2020 in the UK.


Technology

The Soviet Union launches Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. and so starts the space race and man's exploration of our solar system

Inventions The Year Invented Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )

Atomic Clock ----- 1955 England

Breeder Reactor ----- 1951 USA Converted Uranium to Plutonium

Credit Card ----- 1950 USA by Ralph Schneider

Hovercraft ----- 1955 England by Christopher Cockerell

Hydrogen Bomb ----- 1952 USA by Edward Teller's team

Lunar Probe ----- 1959 Russia Lunik I passed the Moon

Lunar Probe ----- 1959 Russia Lunik II crashed on the Moon

Lunar Probe ----- 1959 Russia Lunik III photographed the far side of the Moon


The Cuban Missile Crisis was what Sergei Khrushchev, son of Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev, called “an American psychological crisis. Americans saw for the first time that they were vulnerable and it was very scary for them.” Americans reacted to this in a variety of ways. Some people sought out survival supplies for bomb shelters that many citizens had in their basements or backyards at the time. Others sent telegrams to Washington, D.C., demanding that their leaders solve the crisis. There was a drop in tourism to Florida even as the military set up anti-aircraft sites on the state’s Atlantic beaches.

Protestors gathered in Berkeley to debate whether or not putting a naval blockade around Cuba – which many felt was an escalating step – was the right thing to do. There were other demonstrators, however, who actively wanted nuclear war against Russia. The American Strategic Air Command went on DEFCON 2, the highest level of alert short of war. Some businesses even saw the increased military activity around them as a good sign they felt, as with World War II, that the economy would improve with heightened government orders to industry.


U.S.S. INDEPENDENCE

Named for the right of self-government, the fifth USS Independence was commissioned on Jan. 10, 1959. In 1960, she saw her first cruise to the Mediterranean. The year 1962 saw the ship helping with the Berlin crisis during that summer. The fall saw her go to the Caribbean to help with quarantining Cuba during the Russian missile crisis.

The ship continued cruising various Atlantic runs through 1965. In that year, she went on a run to the South China Sea. While there, her aircrews conducted thousands of sorties against the North Vietnamese troops. Upon her return to the east coast, the ship resumed her normal operations in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

The 1970’s saw USS Independence carrying out more operations in the Mediterranean. She was the site of the first female US pilot to gain carrier qualification in 1979. In 1980, the ship was waiting when the American hostages were freed from Iran. During the next few years, she saw action in Lebanon and Grenada.

In 1990, the ship became the first carrier to enter the Persian Gulf in over 15 years. She helped with air support during and after Operation Desert Storm. The rest of the 1990’s saw her flying missions over southern Iraq and making visits to various Pacific ports. She was decommissioned on Sept. 30, 1998.


The American West

Black history is the story of millions of African Americans residing in the United States who have struggled for centuries to fully claim the promises of liberty granted in the founding documents of the United States. Their story is one of slavery, emancipation, reconstruction, Jim Crow-era disenfranchisement, and the Civil Rights Movement. Through all these centuries, Black Americans have made extraordinary culture contributions to the United States in the areas of theatre, music, film, literature, and every other area of creative expression.


The Shaking In California Is Getting WORSE As Hundreds And Hundreds Of Earthquakes Cause Alarm On The West Coast

Are we getting close to a major seismic event on the west coast? Within the past several days, we have seen hundreds of earthquakes happen in southern California, there have been large earthquakes offshore near the Cascadia Subduction Zone, and there has been a very alarming swarm of earthquakes at Mt. Hood. We haven’t seen this much seismic activity along the west coast in quite a long time, and many are concerned that this could be leading up to something really big. (Read More. )


On This Day In Photos – Rhodesia In Crisis: Ian Smith Issues A Unilateral Declaration of Independence

ON This Day in photos: November 11 1965: The Rhodesian Government, led by Prime Minister Ian Smith, cuts all links with the British Crown. Smith’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) came after talks with British Prime Minister Harold Wilson.

Said Smith: “There can be no happiness in a country while the absurd situation continues to exist where people, such as ourselves, who have ruled themselves with an impeccable record for over 40 years, are denied what is freely granted to other countries.”

The whites did not only rule themselves. The whites ruled the blacks. The British were not dead set against independence. But they wanted to ensure the black majority population achieved a fair share of power. Smith was having none of it. Under Smith, the 220,000 white Rhodesians would rule over four million black Rhodesians.

Harold Wilson announced sanctions against Smith’s illegal and racist regime.

The British were on the side of the Rhodesian opposition parties – the Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu) and the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (Zapu). Both declared breakaway governments. Zanu petitioned the United Nations and the Organisation of African Unity for assistance.

Zapu National Treasurer Jason Mayo gave a statement before leaving London – where he has been in exile – to set up his rival government in Lusaka, Zambia. “Treason and rebellion have been committed. The lives particularly of four million unarmed Africans are in jeopardy,” he said.

What did the build up to independence look like? This:

Christmas mail is loaded aboard the Imperial Airways flight headed for South Africa and North & East Rhodesia. South African High Commissioner to Britain Charles te Water, with his wife, beside the aeroplane while it is being loaded with the mail Date: 09/12/1931

The Duchess of Gloucester talking with Lady Cub Master Jean Dike (nearest camera) of the Souhern Rhodesia Contingent in the grounds of Marlborough House, London. Date: 09/06/1953

Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (L) with her daughter Princess Margaret as they watch a band and choir during their visit to Luveve near Bulawayo in Southern Rhodesia. Date: 13/07/1953

Princess Margaret looks at a display of crocodiles in the Uganda Pavilion at the Rhodes Centenary Exhibition, Bulawayo, during their visit to Southern Rhodesia, with her mother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (L). Date: 14/07/1953

Some of the members of the Covent Garden Opera Company photographed at the Airways Terminal, Victoria, London when they left for Southern Rhodesia to present opera at the newly constructed Theatre Royal, Bulawayo, as part of the Rhodes Centenary celebrations. Left to right: Eric Mitchell, Elizabeth Latham (stage manager), Frederick Dahlberg, Joan Sutherland, Norman Walker, Constance Shacklock and Jesse Walters. Date: 19/07/1953

Ray Amm, Rhodesia, is decorated with the winner’s wreath after he captured the first place in the 350 cc class in the German motorcycle Grand Prix at the Solitude circuit near Stuttgart, on July 25, 1954. Right, holding ribbon, stands Alfred Neubauer, racing department chief of Mercedes Benz. (AP Photo/Albert Riethausen) Date: 25/07/1954

The English Footballer of the Year 1954, Tom Finney (r), shows one of his many international caps to the Northern Rhodesia Sportsman of the Year 1953, Inspector Wapamesa of the North Rhodesian Police (l), after giving a coaching exhibition in Lusaka Date: 11/07/1955

Preston North End and England’s Tom Finney (second l) takes part in a radio discussion at the Central African Broadcasting Station concerning the relative standards of the game in England and Northern Rhodesia. His interlocutors are (l-r) John Burgess (former Pegasus player), Donald Lightfoot (producer of the programme) and Bob Hesford (former Huddersfield Town goalkeeper who opposed Finney in the 1938 FA Cup Final) Date: 11/07/1955

Prince Charles and Princess Anne join with Princess Margaret in a farewell wave to the Queen Mother, who was leaving for a trip to Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Date: 01/07/1957

Lord Reith, the Chairman of the Colonial Development Corporation, is pictured at London Airport as he boarded a BOAC liner for Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. He will be away for three weeks. Date: 03/08/1956

Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother accompanied by the guard commander Major R. Aikenhead, inspects a guard of honour of the Second Battalion the King’s African rifles at the great Indaba in the Matotos Hills, near Bullawayo, Rhodesia on July 8, 1957. Behind the Queen Mother is her private secretary, Lt-Col. Gilliatt. The Queen Mother wears a jacket and dress of white lace. Her white hat is trimmed with white and sapphire blue osprey feathers. Date: 08/07/1957

Billy Graham opened his Central African campaign. After five weeks in “Africa on the West Coast this was his first crusade in a part of Africa where there is any discrimination between the different races. The great feature of the opening crusade was the way in which Black and White -– 12,000 of them -– stood and prayed shoulder to shoulder. Hundreds had chartered special aircraft to fly from South Africa where there is rigid apartheid. When Dr. Graham called for ‘“Decisions for Christ’” hundreds of people of all races filed side by side to stand beneath his rostrum. It was the held in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Date: 20/02/1960

Miss Barbara Cartland, the novellist, makes a purchase from the Rhodesia & Nyasaland stall at ‘The Trafalgar Fair’ in London. Date: 29/10/1959

Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother smiles happily as she is greeted by the Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the Earl of Dalhousie, on her arrival at Salisbury Airport, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland on May 11, 1960 from London to begin her three-week tour of the federation.

In the Katanga province which has seceded from the Congo, a three-mile long convoy of fleeing Belgian refugees makes a brief halt, 30 miles from the border post at Kasumbalesa, Northern Rhodesia on July 16, 1960. Some of the passengers get out to stretch their legs on the dusty road others sit in their cars, rifles at the ready.

The referee holds up the fist of Daniel Bekker of Rhodesia after he had outpointed Andrew Reddy of Ireland, left, in their welterweight bout of the Summer Olympic Games boxing tournament in Rome, Italy on August 31, 1960.

Colonial Secretary Mr Iain Macleod, whose Northern Rhodesia constitution plan met opposition when announcd, speaks at the opening of the National Conference of the young Conservatives, at Friends Meeting House in Euston Road, London. Date: 28/02/1961

Both from Africa are these smiling contenders for the Miss World beauty title at the Lyceum ballroom, Strand, London, where the finals of the competition takes place. They are 19-year-old Angela Moorcroft (left), representing the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and Yvonne Hulley, also 19, who represents South Africa. Date: 03/11/1961

Mme. P. Barany, a 91-year-old Belgian women, sits on a crate at Ndola Station, Northern Rhodesia on Dec. 11, 1961, after the arrival of a refugee train that brought Belgian women and children from troubled Katanga. Rhodesian Red Cross workers were waiting at the station to give food and drink to the refugees.

The Queen with her guests when she entertained the Commonwealth Prime Ministers to dinner at Buckingham Palace. Left to right : Mr Rashidi Kawawa (Tanganyika) : Dr Eric Williams (Trinidad & Tobago) : Sir Milton Margai (Sierra Leone) : Sir Abubakar Tarawa Balewa (Nigeria) : Sir Alexander Bustamente (Jamaica) : Sir Roy Welensky (Rhodesia) : Tun Abdul Razak (Malaya) : Mr F D K Goka (Ghana) : Mr Sam P C Ferando (Ceylon) : Archbishop Makarios (Cyprus) Front row: Mr Keith Holyoake (New Zealand) : Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (India) : Mr John Diefenbaker (Canada) : the Queen : Mr Robert Menzies (Australia) : Field Marshal Ayub Khan (Pakistan) : and Mr Harold Macmillan (Britain).

Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia, Winston Field (l), is greeted by Deputy Prime Minister Rab Butler (r) Date: 28/05/1963

Dr Kenneth Kaunda, the first Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia, arrives at London Airport to lead his Government’s delegation at the Northern Rhodesia Independence Conference opening on May 5th. Date: 01/05/1964

(L-R) Sir Roy Welensky, the former Prime Minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, shakes hands with the Prime Minister Sir Alec Douglas-Home. Date: 25/05/1964

Princess Alexandra smiles as she arrives at Westminster Abbey, to attend the service marking the independence of Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia). Date: 24/10/1964

Dr Kenneth Kaunda, President of the new African State of Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) takes leave of Harold Wilson with a handshake after lunching with the Prime Minister at No.10 Downing Street.
President Kaunda, is visiting this country as the guest of the British Government. Date: 13/11/1964

Rhodesian Premier Ian Smith, leaves 10 Downing Street, being besieged by photographers and reporters for a statement. A month later Smith unilaterally declared Rhodesian independence from the United Kingdom. Date: 08/10/1965

Adolfo Etchegary, the Argentine scrum-half, second left, breaks away from a scrum and kicks for touch as he is charged by Rhodesian flanker John Bredenkamp, during an international rugby match, in Salisbury, Rhodesia, May 11, 1965.

Farewell wave from Mr Ian Smith , the Rhodesian Prime Minister, as he boards the airliner at London Airport tonight to fly home. Mr Smith was leaving London after failure of efforts to solve the crisis over the Rhodesian independence issue. Date: 11/10/1965

Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey at Downing Street, where he attended a Cabinet meeting called by Harold Wilson following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Rhodesia. Date: 11/11/1965

29TH OCTOBER: ON THIS DAY IN 1965 IAN SMITH TOLD PRIME MINISTER HAROLD WILSON THAT RHODESIA WOULD DECLARE UDI (UNILATERAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE) IAN SMITH 1965: Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith pictured leaving London Airport for home after stormy London talks on his country’s independence.

WHAT FOLLOWED?

The United Nations Security Council condemned Mr Smith’s regime in Rhodesia.

The US immediately supported the British sanctions – with embargoes on arms exports and sugar imports – and the UN called for all its members to implement economic sanctions in 1966. France and the USSR abstained, but South Africa and Portugal – with its colony Mozambique – refused and their continued trading with Rhodesia was instrumental in keeping the Smith government afloat.

Joshua Nkomo’s Zapu and Robert Mugabe’s Zanu parties overcame their differences to form the Patriotic Front (PF) to confront Ian Smith. Armed resistance from their guerrilla movements continued until white rule formally ended in June 1979, when Abel Muzorewa of the African National Congress (ANC) became the first black prime minister of the newly named Zimbabwe-Rhodesia.

Robert Mugabe was elected prime minister of an independent Zimbabwe in 1980 under a new constitution.

Mr Smith remained an MP until 1987.

Student Demonstrations against Rhodesia on Fleet Street, London. Date: 11/11/1966

Wearing her bathing costume Miss Rhodesia during the Miss World contest in London. Date: 19/11/1965

British Prime Minister Harold Wilson (left), Ian Smith, the leader of rebel Rhodesia and the warship HMS Fearless where they met off Gibraltar in October 1968. According to papers released under the 30-year rule at the Public Records Office in Kew, west London, unknown attackers sabotaged an aircraft from the flight used to transport Harold Wilson to the talks

Ian Stacey and his wife pose happily on the escarpment on Oct. 1, 1973, with a souvenir presented by Security Forces stationed nearby at Rhodesia’s border. On the wall behind are plaques given by the difference army groups they have met on duty in the area.

South African Prime Minister John Vorster, back to camera at right, and Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith, left, during the meeting on August 25, 1975, as they attend the Rhodesian Constitutional Conference in a railway train halfway across the Victoris Falls Bridge on the border between Rhodesia and Zambia.

Young Liberals leader Peter Hain among Anti-Apartheid movement demonstrators who marched from Charing Cross Embankment to a rally in Trafalgar Square, to protest the 10th Anniversary of the declaration of UDI by the Smith regime in Rhodesia. Date: 09/11/1975

President Ford has ordered Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to Africa on a peace mission to head off the perils of a black-white war in the troubled continent, it was announced, May 25, 1974. Kissinger will depart on a journey to at least three African capitols – Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania for talks with President Julius Nyerere, to Lusaka in Zambia to meet with President Kenneth Kaunda, and to Pretoria in South Africa for conferences with Prime Minister John Vorster. Kissinger will be aiming for the emergence of a belt of friendly, pro-Western states from Namibia on the south Atlantic seaboard, through Botswana and Rhodesia and to Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. Date: 10/09/1976

Leaders of African National Congress of Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) Robert Mugabe, left, and Joshua Nkomo were in cheerful mood at a joint press conference they gave in Dar Ea Salaam, Tanzania, on Oct. 9, 1976.

1976: Miss Rhodesia, 22 year old Jane Bird, reveals her shapely figure at her London hotel. Jane, who arrived in London this morning, is hoping to be the first girl to represent her country in the Miss World contest since 1965, when Rhodesia declared independence. Date: 17/11/1976

A black Rhodesian prisoner stands with a rope tied around his neck, to prevent escape, placed there by Rhodesian cavalrymen, background, who detain him for questioning in Lupane, Southern Rhodesia in Sept. 1977. Rhodesia’s white-dominated government is countering black Rhodesian guerrilla activities with militant armed forces. Date: 01/09/1977

A Rhodesian government soldier holds African villagers at gunpoint, forcing them to hold a push-up position, in Kikidoo, Southern Rhodesia, Sept. 17, 1977. The men are being interrogated about anti-government guerrilla activity. Date: 17/09/1977

Britain’s Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dances with Zambia’s President Kenneth Kaunda at the Lusaka Press Club annual awards dinner, Aug. 6, 1979. Mrs Thatcher is in Zambia for the Commonwealth conference aimed at resolving the Rhodesia-Zimbabwe issue. Date: 06/08/1979

Patriotic Front leader Robert Mugabe, right, is pictured with British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington at Lancaster House in London, United Kingdom on Sept. 10, 1979, where they were attending the opening of the Zimbabwe-Rhodesia constitutional talks. Date: 10/09/1979

The scene at Lancaster house, London, after the signing of the Rhodesia ceasefire agreement. (l-r) Dr S. Mundawarara, Bishop Muzorewa, Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour and Patriotic Front leaders Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe. Date: 21/12/1979

RHODESIA 1980: Bombardier John Gayland, 29, of the 1st Royal Horse Artillery on duty outside the Rhodesia Ceasefire Monitoring Force Headquarters at the Morgan High School in Salisbury during the build-up to the Rhodesian General Election. Date: 24/01/1980

WHITE FARMERS IN RHODESIA 1980: The Mills family of Borrowdale, nr Salisbury, display some of the weapons with which they are prepared to defend their 500 acre poultry farm. They are Gerald Mills (from North Wales), wife Caroline and daughters Daphne (hat, 12) and Vanessa (10). Date: 02/02/1980

RHODESIAN ARMY 1980: White soldiers of the 1st Battalion, Rhodesia Light Infantry, on parade at the barracks at Salisbury, the Rhodesian capital (now named Harare). Date: 04/02/1980

British Army drill instructors with recruit volunteers from Robert Mugabe?s guerrilla forces in Mtoko, Rhodesia in an undated photo.

Guerillas lay down their arms under the watchful eye of a British Monitoring Force soldier before entering the mobile polling station limits after emerging from their bush hideouts to vote on Friday, March 1, 1980 in the independence election, at a southeastern assembly camp, Foxtrott Assembly Camp in Rhodesia. Guerillas in this camp, some 6,000 of the total 22,000, belong to Robert Mugabes’s ZANLA forces.

Britain’s Prince Charles shares a word with Prime Minister Robert Mugabe, while British Governor Lord Christopher Soames and the Rhodesian cabinet look on in Salisbury, Rhodesia, on April 16, 1980. The Prince spoke to Mugabe for a few moments after his arrival to hand over power to a new independent Zimbabwe at the stroke of midnight on April 17. Date: 16/04/1980

Britain’s Prince Charles, left, and the British Governor Lord Christopher Soames, stand at attention while a bugler blows the last post and two other soldiers lower the Union Jack for the last time at Government House in Salisbury, Rhodesia on April 17, 1980. Rhodesia will become the independent country of Zimbabwe at midnight.

On March 4th 1980 Robert Mugabe was invited to form a government in Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), after his party had won an absolute majority in the elections. This picture was taken shortly after Mugabe won the election victory that made him Zimbabwe’s first black Prime Minister. RHODESIA/ZIMBABWE 1980: The Prince of Wales (l) with Robert Mugabe (2nd l), Prime Minister of the newly independent Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Joshua Nkomo and Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington during a dinner at Government House in Salisbury (now Harare).

Jubilant blacks celebrate the removal of colonialism by flogging the statue of Rhodesia?s founder, Cecil John Rhodes, with steel clubs and heavy mallet when the statue was removed from central Salisbury on Wednesday, July 31, 1980. The country became independent in April, ending nine decades of British colonial rule. Date: 31/07/1980


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