John McNair

John McNair

John McNair was born in Boston, Lincolnshire, in October 1887. He left school at thirteen and worked as an errand boy. McNair became a socialist and joined the Independent Labour Party (ILP). In the 1910 General Election he took part in the campaign to elect Victor Grayson at Colne Valley. (1)

Blacklisted for his political activities in England he found it difficult to find work and decided to move to Paris. (2) He returned in 1923 and was appointed as London's Organising Secretary for the ILP in the 1924 General Election. (3)

After the election he moved back to France. According to one source he became "a leather merchant, founding a French football club with eight teams, and lecturing on English poets at the Sorbonne." (4)

The Spanish Civil War began on 18th July, 1936. McNair attempted to recruit soldiers to fight for the Popular Front Government. McNair worked alongside William Gallacher of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). "I had three meetings in Fife which, the local comrades were good enough to tell me, were successful, but there was a strong Catholic opposition... Gallacher's meetings in the constituency were broken up by the Catholics." (5)

McNair went to Barcelona to run the ILP's political office. The ILP was affiliated with Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), an anti-Stalinist organisation formed by Andres Nin and Joaquin Maurin. As a result of an ILP fundraising campaign in England, the POUM had received almost £10,000, as well as an ambulance and a planeload of medical supplies. (6)

In December 1936 McNair met George Orwell who had been sent from London by Fenner Brockway and Henry Noel Brailsford. It has been pointed out by D. J. Taylor, that McNair was "initially wary of the tall ex-public school boy with the drawling upper-class accent". (7)

McNair later recalled: "At first his accent repelled my Tyneside prejudices... He handed me his two letters, one from Fenner Brockway, the other from H.N. Brailsford, both personal friends of mine. I realised that my visitor was none other than George Orwell, two of whose books I had read and greatly admired." Orwell told McNair: "I have come to Spain to join the militia to fight against Fascism". Orwell told him that he was also interested in writing about the "situation and endeavour to stir working-class opinion in Britain and France." (8) Orwell talked about producing a couple of articles for The New Statesman. (9)

Joseph Stalin appointed Alexander Orlov as the Soviet Politburo adviser to the Popular Front government. Orlov and his NKVD agents had the unofficial task of eliminating the supporters of Leon Trotsky fighting for the Republican Army and the International Brigades. This included the arrest and execution of leaders of POUM, National Confederation of Trabajo (CNT) and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI).

Edvard Radzinsky, the author of Stalin (1996) has pointed out: "Stalin had a secret and extremely important aim in Spain: to eliminate the supporters of Trotsky who had gathered from all over the world to fight for the Spanish revolution. NKVD men, and Comintern agents loyal to Stalin, accused the Trotskyists of espionage and ruthlessly executed them." (10)

John McNair was identified by the NKVD as a supporter of POUM and attempted to arrest him. McNair was now in danger of being murdered by communists in the Republican Army. With the help of the British Consul in Barcelona, McNair, his secretary, Eileen O'Shaughnessy, George Orwell and Stafford Cottman, were able to escape to France on 23rd June, 1937. (11) The first newspaper McNair saw at the station contained a report saying that he had been arrested for espionage. (12)

McNair's assistant, Bob Smillie, was arrested by the police. McNair campaigned for his release but he died in June, 1937. McNair investigated his death as he believed he had been murdered. According to David Murray this was untrue: "The opinions which are widely current that Robert Smillie was arrested due to a suspected connection with secret conspiracies and planned outrages is quite unfounded. Accusations that the prisoner was ill treated and finally shot are completely untrue." (13)

Georges Kopp, Smillie's commander in Spain, also believed that Smillie had been murdered: "The doctor states that Bob Smillie had the skin and the flesh of his skin perforated by a powerful kick delivered by a foot shod in the nailed boot; the intestines were partly hanging outside. Another blow had severed the left side connection between the jaw and the skull and the former was merely hanging on the right side. Bob died about 30 minutes after reaching the hospital." (14)

On 14th September, 1938, The Daily Worker, published a statement from F. A. Frankford, claiming that the the ILP and POUM were working in secret with the Nationalist Army. John McNair attacked Frankford in the New Leader. Frankford later admitted he "had been imprisoned in Barcelona and presented with the documents to sign as a condition of freedom." (15)

McNair was elected as General Secretary of the Independent Labour Party (ILP) and was its candidate in the Bristol Central by-election in 1943, taking 7.3% of the vote. He also wrote the official biography of James Maxton, entitled James Maxton: The Beloved Rebel (1955). He also completed a degree at the University of Durham. (16)

John McNair died on 18th February, 1968.

A moment later Orwell followed him in. He drawled in a distinctly bourgeois accent, "I'm looking for a chap named McNair, I've got a couple of letters for him." At first his accent repelled my Tyneside prejudices and I curtly replied, "I'am the lad ye're looking for." He handed me his two letters, one from Fenner Brockway, the other from H.N. I realised that my visitor was none other than George Orwell, two of whose books I had read and greatly admired.... I asked him what I could do to help and he replied, "I have come to Spain to join the militia to fight against Fascism." I asked him if he had ever been a soldier and he mentioned that he had been a police officer in Burma and could handle a rifle. I told him that I remembered this from Burmese Days. For the first time he smiled and the atmosphere became friendly....

He took careful note of my description of the militia bodies and then added that he would like to write about the situation and endeavour to stir workingclass opinion in Britain and France. I suggested the best thing he could do would be to use my office as his headquarters, get the atmosphere by going to Madrid, Valencia, and the Aragon front where the P.O.U.M. forces were stationed and then get down to the writing of his book. He then said that this was quite secondary and his main reason for coming was to fight against Fascism.

(1) John McNair, Spanish Diary (1975) page 2

(2) Bernard Crick, George Orwell: A Life (1980) page 208

(3) John McNair, Spanish Diary (1975) page 3

(4) Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, (1968) page 296

(5) John McNair, letter to David Murray (November, 1936)

(6) Michael Shelden, Orwell: The Authorised Biography (1991) page 275

(7) D. Taylor, Orwell the Life (2004) page 202

(8) John McNair, George Orwell: The Man I Knew (March, 1965)

(9) Bernard Crick, George Orwell: A Life (1980) page 208

(10) Daniel Gray, Homage to Caledonia (2008) page 147

(11) Fenner Brockway, Outside the Right (1963) page 25

(12) Michael Shelden, Orwell: The Authorised Biography (1991) page 302

(13) David Murray, letter to John McNair (30th June, 1937)

(14) Daniel Gray, Homage to Caledonia (2008) page 163

(15) Fenner Brockway, Inside the Left (1942) page 317

(16) John McNair, Spanish Diary (1975) page 3

What did your Mcnair ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Maid were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Mcnair. 26% of Mcnair men worked as a Laborer and 11% of Mcnair women worked as a Maid. Some less common occupations for Americans named Mcnair were Farm Laborer and Laborer .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940

Ronald McNair never gave up

That’s a lot of distinction. But it wasn’t necessarily an easy path for Ronald McNair. He faced racism, being an African American. But that didn’t stop him from fighting for his right to education and achievement.

The McNair Build Process

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Early history Edit

The military reservation was established in 1791, on about 28 acres (110,000 m 2 ) at the tip of Greenleaf Point. Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant included it in his plans for Washington, the Federal City, as a significant site for the capital defense. [2] On L'Enfant's orders, Andre Villard, a French follower of Marquis de Lafayette, placed a one-gun battery on the site. In 1795, the site became one of the first two United States arsenals. [3]

An arsenal first occupied the site, and defenses were built in 1794. However, the fortifications did not halt the invasion of British forces in 1814, who burned down many public government buildings in Washington, D.C., during the War of 1812. Soldiers at the arsenal evacuated north with as much gunpowder as they could carry, hiding the rest in a well as the British soldiers came up the Potomac River after burning the Capitol. About 47 British soldiers found the powder magazines they had come to destroy empty. Someone threw a match into the well, and "a tremendous explosion ensued," a doctor at the scene reported, "whereby the officers and about 30 of the men were killed and the rest most shockingly mangled." [ This quote needs a citation ]

The remaining soldiers destroyed the arsenal buildings, but the facilities were rebuilt from 1815 to 1821. Eight buildings were arranged around a quadrangle and named the Washington Arsenal. In the early 1830s, four acres of marshland were reclaimed and added to the arsenal. A seawall and additional buildings were constructed. Between 1825 and 1831, the penitentiary was constructed on the arsenal with a three-story block of cells, administrative buildings, and a shoe factory for teaching prisoners a trade. In 1857, the federal government purchased additional land for the site. By 1860, the arsenal had used one of the first steam presses, developed the first automatic machine for manufacturing percussive caps, and experimented with the Hale Rocket. A large civilian workforce manufactured ammunition at the arsenal, and the site included a large military hospital. [4]

Explosion Edit

During the Civil War, women worked in an ammunition factory at the Washington Arsenal. Many lower-class women—including Irish immigrants—needed wages, especially after male relatives went to war. Women were believed to have nimble fingers, attention to detail, and a tendency to neatness suitable for rolling, pinching, tying, and bundling cartridges with bullets and black powder.

On June 17, 1864, fireworks left in the sun outside a cartridge room ignited, killing twenty-one women, many of whom burned to death in flammable hoop skirts. The War Department paid for their funerals, and President Lincoln attended the joint funeral procession. A monument at Congressional Cemetery commemorates these women. In memory of the many Irish victims, the Irish foreign minister laid a wreath at Congressional Cemetery memorial during 150th anniversary commemorations in 2014. [5] [6] [7]

Lincoln conspirators' trial Edit

The conspirators accused of assassinating president Abraham Lincoln were imprisoned on the grounds of the arsenal, tried by military commission. After being found guilty, four were hanged on the premises, and the rest received prison sentences. Among those hanged at what would become Fort McNair was Mary Surratt, the first woman ever executed under federal orders. [1]

One of the buildings on the complex, Ulysses S. Grant Hall, is the location of the 1865 military tribunal of the conspirators of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The hall periodically holds public open houses. Each quarter of the hall is open to the public, and people can visit the courtroom and learn more about the trials. A hospital was built next to the penitentiary in 1857. Wounded Civil War soldiers were treated at what then was called the Washington Arsenal. The arsenal was closed in 1881, and the post was transferred to the Quartermaster Corps. [1]

Walter Reed Edit

A general hospital, the predecessor to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, was located at the post from 1898 until 1909. Major Walter Reed found the area's marshlands an excellent site for his research on malaria. Reed's work contributed to the discovery of the cause of yellow fever. Reed died of peritonitis after an appendectomy at the post in 1902. The post dispensary and the visiting officers' quarters now occupy the buildings where Reed worked and died. [1]

20th century Edit

About 90% of the present buildings on the post's 100 acres (0.40 km 2 ) were built, reconstructed, or remodeled by 1908. In 1901, with the birth of the Army War College, the post, now called Washington Barracks, became the army's center for the education and training of senior officers to lead and direct large numbers of troops. [1] Its first classes were conducted in 1904 in Roosevelt Hall, [1] [8] the iconic building designed by the architectural firm of McKim, Mead and White. [8]

The Army Industrial College was founded at McNair in 1924 to prepare officers for high-level posts in Army supply organizations and study industrial mobilization. It evolved into the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. [1] The post was renamed Fort Humphreys in 1935 – a name previously assigned to today's Fort Belvoir. [9] The Army War College was reorganized as the Army-Navy Staff College in 1943 and became the National War College in 1946. The two colleges became the National Defense University in 1976. [1]

The post was renamed in 1948 to honor Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair, commander of army ground forces during World War II, who was headquartered at the post and was killed during Operation Cobra near Saint-Lô, France, on July 25, 1944. He was killed in an infamous friendly fire incident when errant bombs of the Eighth Air Force fell on the positions of 2nd Battalion, 120th Infantry, where McNair was observing the fighting. Fort McNair has been the headquarters of the Military District of Washington since 1966. [1]

Proposed buffer zone Edit

In 2020, the Department of Defense and Army Corps of Engineers proposed a permanent restricted area of about 250 feet to 500 feet into the Washington Channel along the fort's western bank outlined by buoys and warning signs. This proposal was met with resistance from D.C. city leaders as it would limit access of up to half of the heavily used waterway. In January 2021, the NSA intercepted communications from the Iranian Revolutionary Guard that threatened mounting suicide boat attacks on Fort McNair similar to those used in the USS Cole bombing. The communications also revealed threats to kill Vice Chief of Staff of the Army General Joseph M. Martin and plans to infiltrate and surveil the installation. This contributed to calls to establish the buffer zone and continue increased security. [10] During a March 2021 House Transportation & Infrastructure hearing on a bill prohibiting such a restriction on the Channel, it was noted that the rule, which did not propose the construction of a fence or blast wall, seemed designed to safeguard the views of "rich generals' houses". [11]

Fort McNair is today part of the Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall, the headquarters of the Army's Military District of Washington, and serves as home to the National Defense University, as well as the official residence of the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

National Defense University Edit

The National Defense University represents a significant concentration of the defense community's intellectual resources. Initially established in 1976, the university includes the National War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy (formerly the Industrial College of the Armed Forces) at Fort McNair, and the Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia. These and other schools are separate entities, but their close affiliation enhances the exchange of faculty expertise and educational resources, promotes interaction among students and faculty, and reduces administrative costs. The National War College and the Eisenhower School concentrate on preparing civilian and military professionals in national security strategy, decision-making, joint and combined warfare, and the resource component of national strategy. The Joint Forces Staff College, established under the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1946, prepares selected officers for joint and combined duty.

In 1990, the Information Resources Management College was formed as the capstone institution for Defense Information Resource Management education. As such, it provides graduate-level courses in information resources management. The National Defense University also features a first-rate research capability through the Institute for National Strategic Studies. This institute, established in 1984, conducts independent policy analyses and develops policy and strategy alternatives. It also includes a War Gaming and Simulation Center and the NDU Press.

The university has several other educational programs. These include the Capstone program, for general and flag officer selectees the International Fellows program, which brings NDU almost 100 participants from 50 different countries and the Reserve Components National Security Course, which offers military education to senior officers of the armed forces.

Inter-American Defense College Edit

The Inter-American Defense College is an advanced-studies institute for senior officers of the 25-member nations of the Inter-American Defense Board. Up to three students of the rank of colonel or the equivalent may be sent to the college by each member nation. The students' backgrounds must qualify them to participate in the solution of hemispheric-defense problems.

The officers study world alliances and the international situation, the inter-American system and its role, strategic concepts of war, and engage in a planning exercise for hemispheric defense. The college has been at Fort McNair since 1962.

United States Army Center of Military History Edit

In September 1998, the United States Army Center of Military History moved from rented offices in Washington, D.C., to Fort McNair in historically preserved quarters remodeled from its previous use as a commissary and before that as Fort McNair's stables. The center dated from the creation of the Army General Staff historical branch in July 1943 and the gathering of professional historians, translators, editors, and cartographers to record the history of World War II. That effort led to a monumental 79-volume series known as the "Green Books."

Today, the center operates through four divisions. The histories division is the one most involved in writing the histories and providing historical research support to the Army staff. The field program and historical services guides work done at various posts and installations, as well as the work by deployed historical detachments for Army operations, ensures historical information is comprehensive and factual.

Another division is responsible for overseeing the Army museum system and preserving artifacts and artwork that are the army's historical treasure. One such museum, The Old Guard Museum, was located at Fort Myer until it was closed.

In 1758 Robert McNair bought the lands of Little Hill of Tollcross from Patrick Tod for £100, reputedly paying the transaction in cash, with notes kept in an old satchel. McNair was a successful grocer in 18 th century Glasgow. He married Jean Holms, who took an active part in the business which became known as ‘Robert McNair and Jean Holms in Company’.

The couple built a dwelling-house on the lands, and enjoyed a nursery garden with pear trees. McNair was noted for his meanness and declined to appoint an architect to oversee the building of his house. It was a two storey structure and upon completion became known as ‘Jeanfield’ to honour his spouse.

It was an odd looking structure and caught the attention of travellers passing along Gallowgate en route by coach to Edinburgh.

McNair died in his seventy sixth year at Jeanfield on 7 th June 1779. The property remained within the family until 1797 when printer John Mennons purchased the estate.

Mennons edited and printed the Glasgow Advertiser, which was the forerunner to the Glasgow Herald. Within a short time of acquiring Jeanfield, John Mennons sold it on to John Finlayson, who was married to one of the daughters of McNair and Jean Holms.

Finlayson bought a further seven acres of land attached to Jeanfield, and started to sink coal pits. This venture was far from successful with flooding proving a constant problem.

In 1846 Jeanfield was purchased by the Eastern Cemetery Joint-stock Company with the aim of laying out a necropolis to serve the east end of the city. By 1847 the original dwelling of Robert McNair was demolished and work began on laying out the burial ground.

The Eastern Cemetery Joint-stock Company appointed eleven ‘gentlemen’ as directors to guide the fortunes of the enterprise. They were

Andrew Buchanan, of Mount Vernon

James Dunlop, of Clyde Iron Works

William Hussey jun., cotton spinner

William Bankier, Provost of Calton

John Reid , of Annfield and Whitehill

John Fyffe, merchant, Glasgow

George Wilson, of Dalmarnock

James Wilson, of Gallowgait

Peter McAra, of Gallowgait

William Sneddon, of Calton

W. W. Christie, British Iron Foundry

Andrew Reid, banker of Calton, Secretary

The laying out of a cemetery must have seemed like a sound investment to the original directorate, as the Parkhead area was evolving from a weaving and coal mining community into an industrialised suburb of the ‘Second City of the Empire’.

Early maps reveal that the Eastern Necropolis was laid out in two phases, with the eastern portion opening first.

The first person you would have met as you entered Janefield would have been Elizabeth McKay, flower seller. This photo was taken around 1938-40 , Elizabeth lived in Bridgeton and was born in April 1905 ,Elizabeth’s maiden name then was McIlwhan, Elizabeth then married a Mr Mavlin in 1920 who sadly died in 1938, Elizabeth remarried in 1940 to Mr James McKay. Margaret Havlin sold flowers on this site before Elizabeth.

Mapping out the oldest houses in St. Louis County

St. Louis County is lucky to still have a number of historic buildings that provide character and depth to our neighborhoods and cities.

General Daniel Bissell House. Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Across St. Louis County, there remain a number of precious sites and buildings that can paint for us a picture of our region’s pioneer era. These early residents included French and Spanish residents, but these populations in St. Louis County were quickly outnumbered by migrants from the Northwest Territory and upland south states like Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. Many of these migrants brought with them enslaved African Americans. By 1840, there were over 3,000 within the boundaries of present day St. Louis County, accounting for roughly 16 percent of the total population.

Some early homesteads were built from quarried limestone and brick, but more commonly from logs, using techniques borrowed from migrant’s areas of origin. Most of these early settlers devoted themselves to transforming the land for farm use, but they also built the foundations of communities in the form of post-offices, churches, and general stores.

St. Louis County is lucky to still have a number of historic buildings that provide character and depth to our neighborhoods and cities—though their numbers continue to dwindle. More than that these resources can connect us to the origins of our communities, helping us better understand past choices and the roots that tie us all together.

Since 1970, an advisory body of the St. Louis County Council called the Historic Buildings Commission (HBC) has designated sites of architectural, cultural, and community significance as County Landmarks. This list has grown to 252 sites, and while far from encyclopedic it is intended to recognize places worthy of preservation, and ones that tell an important part of our story as St. Louisans. In this post, I wanted to share some information on just a handful of these landmarks that speak to the experience and contributions of St. Louis County’s pioneer generation.

If you are interested in exploring all of our County Landmarks, and seeing which ones are in your neck of the woods, check out our new interactive map here.

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Casa Alvarez, 1790, 289 Rue St. Denis

Hidden from view by the trees and brush that run along Rue St. Denis in Florissant, Casa Alvarez provides a rare link to the often forgotten Spanish heritage of the St. Louis region. It is often cited as the oldest house in St. Louis County. However, accounts differ on the early history of the property. Most say that the first portion of the house was built for Eugenio Alvarez who came to the community of St. Ferdinand (now Florissant) around 1770 and served as military storekeeper to Captain Pedro Piernas, the first Spanish Governor of the Upper Louisiana Territory. 1 However, some archival evidence casts doubt on this narrative. Most notably the swore in testimony of Joel Musick before the United States Land Commissioners that a man named Baptiste Presse had built a home on the lot which had fallen down around 1810. 2

Whoever built Casa Alvarez did it in a frame style of construction known as “Maison de poteaux sur sole” or “sur une solage.” Meaning it has vertical supports that are placed on a sill instead of directly into the ground like many pioneer dwellings. This was a rare style of construction that would have been more difficult to achieve. It’s also less likely to rot and decay, which helps explain why it survived.

By 1840, the home can be definitively said to be the property of Augustine Alverez, Eugenio’s son. The property remained in the Alvarez family until it was purchased by Humphrey J. Moynihan in 1905. Moynihan had served as an early Mayor of Florissant, elected in 1894.

By 1914, the property had been sold to Dr. Herman von Schrenk, a wildly successful plant pathologist who invented a wood preservation process used by the American railway industry. Von Schrenk hired architect Harry Hellmuth in the 1930s to expand the house to its current size. 3

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

The Sappington Houses, as early as 1808, Crestwood and vicinity

The Sappington name is well-known today as the namesake of Sappington Road, the Sappington-Concord Area, and the Thomas Sappington House, a public museum along Grant’s Trail in Crestwood. The family, whose landholdings defined a large portion of south St. Louis County, was led to St. Louis by the family patriarch John Sappington around 1806, after purchasing an initial grant of land along Gravois Creek the year before. John was a veteran of the American Revolution, reportedly serving under George Washington at Valley Forge in 1778. For his service he was given a land grant in Kentucky which he ultimately leveraged to acquire his initial land-holdings in St. Louis. John and his wife Jemima had 17 children who, through marriage and social activity, tied themselves deeply into the early fabric of St. Louis. Sappington descendants would play crucial roles in the development of St. Louis County. For example, Thomas Jefferson Sappington, a grandson of John and Jemima, was one of three men on the commission that chose Clayton as the County seat after the City/County spit in 1877. 4

A number of homes built by the children of John and Jemima Sappington still remain. The Thomas Sappington House mentioned above was constructed around 1808. Two of the Sappington homes have been moved from their original location but still stand. They are the Mark Sappington House, sometimes known as the Arban House (originally built near Watson and Old Sappington Road, now located at 8659 Pardee Lane), and the Zepheniah Sappington House (originally built at 11145 Gravois Road, now located at Lindenwood Park in St. Charles County). Even the original portion of U.S. Grant’s White Haven was built by the husband of Elizabeth Sappington, William Long. Another of William and Elizabeth’s homes, constructed circa 1820, is located at 9385 Pardee Road and is maintained by the St. Louis County Parks Department. The final Sappington House that is still extant is the Joseph Sappington House, a horizontal log home built around 1816. Unlike the others, this structure was not built by a child of John Sappington. Instead, it appears that Joseph was either a cousin or nephew of John who relocated to the area around the time the home was constructed. 5

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Taille De Noyer, beginning in c. 1800, 1 Rue Taille de Noyer

In 1798, the Spanish Government granted a 340-acre piece of property near the village of St. Ferdinand to Hyacinth Dehetre. Dehetre was a founding father of the nearby village, and later a leader of the Missouri Militia during the War of 1812. 6 It is believed that he built the original log cabin that forms the basis for this pioneer home known as Taille De Noyer, so named for a grove of Walnut trees located on the property. 7 Dehetre sold the property in 1804 to George Gordon, who in 1809 was murdered by his stepson John Long Jr. When John Long was executed in 1809, he was the first white man to suffer that fate in St. Louis County. 8 In 1805, the property was sold to John Mullanphy, an Irish immigrant famous for his mercantile and philanthropic activities, including funding the development of the Sacred Heart Orphan Asylum and what became DePaul Hospital. 9 He is often cited as St. Louis’s first millionaire. 10 Mullanphy used the site as a hunting lodge and trading post before he sold it in 1817 for $1 to his daughter Jane and her new husband Charles Chambers. They would build onto the house and turn the property into a working farm. 11 The Chambers family would remain on the property for almost 140 years adding additions in 1830, during the 1840s, and in 1922. In 1960, the property was purchased by the Ferguson-Florissant School District and threatened with demolition. A community effort led to the building being moved 200 yards to a new location. Today it is open for tours and managed by the Florissant Valley Historical Society. 12

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

General Daniel Bissell House, 1815, 10225 Bellefontaine Road

General Daniel Bissell was an important figure in the early military history of the St. Louis region. 13 As a boy of 9, Bissell he enlisted in the Connecticut militia as a fifer during the Revolutionary War. Some sources suggest he carried secret dispatches for the Continental Army. Bissell returned to the military when he enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1788, and he rose quickly through the ranks. In 1791, both Daniel and his brother Russell survived the Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s defeat. This was one of the worst military defeats the United States Army ever suffered against Native American tribes. Daniel eventually was appointed as commander of Fort Massac in Illinois, where he presided over the transfer of the Upper Louisiana Territory at New Madrid in 1804. In 1809, he replaced his brother as Commandant of Fort Bellefontaine near St. Louis, the first American fort built west of the Mississippi River. While serving in the War of 1812 Bissell received a promotion to Brigadier-General.

It is believed that construction of his brick home, now in Bellefontaine Neighbors, was begun in 1815, after Bissell returned to the St. Louis area from the war. He would have constructed the house around a stone kitchen that dated back to 1812. Likely using slave labor, the house was constructed in stages, the final addition coming in the 1890s, many years after Bissell’s death. In 1821, General Bissell left the military and retired to his estate which he called Franklinville Farm. He built up the estate to 2300 acres and became a prominent community leader in the early affairs of the St. Louis area. 14 General Bissell’s family remained in the home for nearly 150 years, each successive generation contributing to the house and its furnishings. 15 In the early 1960s, the house was donated by the family to St. Louis County. The site was restored to its 19th century look and has been maintained as a public house museum since that time.

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Thornhill (Governor Frederick Bates Estate), 1817, Faust Park, 15185 Olive Blvd

In 1806, Frederick Bates came to St. Louis after being appointed to serve as secretary of the Board of Land Commissioners, an important role that also had him serving as the Acting Governor in the absence of the Governor of the territory. 16 He was the brother of Edward Bates, who would serve as Lincoln’s Attorney General during the Civil War. Frederick was born in Virginia in 1777, and served a number of years in the territorial government of Michigan before coming to St. Louis. 1808, he published a book of laws for the Louisiana Territory, the first book published in Missouri. 17 In 1824, Bates became the state of Missouri’s second governor, following the term of Alexander McNair.

Shortly after arriving in St. Louis, Bates purchased roughly 493 acres from Ezekial and Rebekah Rogers. On the site, in what is today Chesterfield, he eventually built a large Federal style home, beginning around 1817. He called the property “Thornhill," and it stands today as the oldest governor’s home in Missouri, and one of the oldest timber framed structures in the state. 18

Bates developed his estate into a Virginia-style plantation, a purpose made possible through the labor of a number of enslaved African Americans. Following his death, Bates property passed to his sons Frederick Jr. and Lucius Lee. Lucius farmed the property until his death in 1898, when the home was leased out and eventually sold in 1900. 19 By 1930, the property had been purchased by Leicester Busch Faust, the grandson of Adolphus Busch and Tony Faust the restaurateur. In 1968, Faust donated the house and surrounding property to St. Louis County Parks and Recreation. 20

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Fairfax (James C. Marshall House), 1841, 2800 McKnight Road

James and John Marshall acquired over 800 acres of property in the 1830s. The property extended from Brentwood into present day Webster Groves. However, much of the property, including the homestead of James Marshall known as “Fairfax,” is in Rock Hill. The house was named for where James was born on the east coast in 1804.

In the 1830s, James operated a mercantile business along Manchester Road. It was in this log structure that he first lived with his wife Elizabeth McCausland after they were married in 1840. 21 She was the daughter of James McCausland, a larger farmer and the namesake of McCausland Avenue. Additionally, her sister married Ralph Clayton, who donated 100 acres to establish the St. Louis County seat after the City of St. Louis seceded in 1876. 22

As some of its earliest, and most prominent residents, the Marshalls were key to the development of the community of Rock Hill. 23 Their mercantile store served as the area’s first post office, and in 1845, they donated land for the construction of the Rock Hill Presbyterian Church. They then employed enslaved African Americans to quarry stone and build the church. 24

In 1941, the house was threatened with demolition but was saved after the Rock Hill Improvement Association succeeded in moving the house 300 feet to a new location. It was moved again in 1997 to make way for a shopping center. 25 In 2012, it was moved yet again, to its current location to make way for a U-Gas gas station. 26 The house, property of the City of Rock Hill, currently sits vacant waiting for new life.

Photo courtesy of Saint Louis County Municipal History Archive

Thomas Mason House, Between 1809 and 1818, 1400 Thomas Mason Place

The Thomas Mason House is one of the oldest stone buildings in the State of Missouri. It was constructed at some point after Mason relocated from Kaskaskia, Illinois around 1809. Mason was a successful farmer, an enterprise he ran through the enslavement of a number of African Americans. These enslaved people likely contributed to the construction of the home. A number of these men and women were granted their freedom by Mason upon his death in 1829. Mason Road runs right through what was his estate, which by 1810 extended over 765 acres.

Mason and his wife Mary were active in the community including the development of Bonhomme Presbyterian Church. The family donated land for the construction of a church building in 1819. 27

By the 1850s, the property had been sold to another St. Louis County civic leader, James C. Sutton. 28 Sutton’s farm made up much of what is now Maplewood, and his home was the first center of St. Louis County governance. 29

Since the 1960s, two additions have been built on the east and west side of the building, but the main home remains well intact, surrounded now by a modern subdivision bearing the Mason family name. 30

[1] United States of America. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. National Register Nomination for Casa Alvarez. By Nancy B. Breme, 1976

[2] Davison, Rosemary S. Florissant, Missouri. Donning Co. Publishers, 2002

[4] Thomas, William Lyman. History of St. Louis County, Missouri: a Story That Attracts by Its Recital of Past Achievements, Its Record of Earnest Endeavor and Sure Development to Present Greatness and Its Future Filled with Roseate Promise. County Living Publications, 2011. S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1911, reprinted

[5] The Past in Our Presence: Historic Buildings in St. Louis County. St. Louis County Dept. of Parks and Recreation, 1996.

[6] Dupre, E. Atlas of the city and county of St. Louis: by congressional townships showing all the surveys of the public lands, and of the confirmed French and Spanish grants, New-Madrid locations, and entries of public lands, up to the 1st day of January, 1838: with the names of the original claimants, and number of acres claimed by each. St. Louis: E. Dupre, 1838 Houck, Louis. A History of Missouri: From the Earliest Explorations and Settlements until the Admission of the State into the Union. III, R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1908. 103-105

[7] The Past in Our Presence, 11

[9] United States of America. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. National Register Nomination for Taille de Noyer. By Noelle Soren, 1979

[11] United States of America. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. National Register Nomination for Taille de Noyer. By Noelle Soren, 1979

[13] Kramer, Gerhardt “The Bissell House: A Study of its Architectural History” Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society, July 1966.

[14] Brockhoff, Dorothy Adele, “The Bissell Saga”, July 1962 Zell, Carl John “General Daniel Bissell” Dissertation Saint Louis University 1971.

[16] Rothwell, Dan A. A Guide to Chesterfield's Architectural Treasures. City of Chesterfield, 1998,124-126.

[17] United States of America. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. National Register Nomination for “Thornhill” Governor Frederick Bates Estate. By Stephen J. Raiche, 1973

[19] Konzelman, Ethel “The Governor Frederick Bates House” St. Louis County Municipal History Records, St. Louis County Parks and Recreation Department

[20] Terry, Elizabeth. Oysters to Angus. Bluebird Pub. Co., 2014.

[22] Magnan, William B., and Marcella C. Magnan. The Streets of St. Louis. Virginia Pub. Co., 2004. 77, 82

[23] Thomas, William Lyman. History of St. Louis County, Missouri: a Story That Attracts by Its Recital of Past Achievements, Its Record of Earnest Endeavor and Sure Development to Present Greatness and Its Future Filled with Roseate Promise. County Living Publications, 2011.

[24] Little, Judy, Historic Inventory Sheet for Rock Hill Presbyterian Church, 1992

[25] Harris, Marty “Public Gets Glimpse of Rock Hill’s Fairfax House, Webster-Kirkwood Times, December 14-20, 2001

[26] Gillerman, Margaret S. “Rock Hill's Fairfax House Is Moving on, with a New Role.”, May 9, 2012,

[27] Draft National Register Nomination for the Thomas Mason House, 1983, St. Louis County Municipal History Records, St. Louis County Parks and Recreation Department.

[28] Lindenbusch, John, Historic Inventory Sheet for Mason House, 1981

[30] Plat for Thomas Mason Place Subdivision, June 13, 1988, St. Louis County, Missouri, Plat Book 277 page 12, Recorder’s Office, Clayton, Missouri.

John McNair - History

TURKEY-FOOT derived its name from a peculiar natural configuration of the land formed by the junction of three rivers where the town of Confluence now stands. Within the territory of Lower Turkey-Foot the first settlements in Somerset county were made. Here white men dwelt in the hunting grounds of the savages here the severest trials of pioneer life were encountered.

At the organization of Somerset county, in 1795, Turkey-Foot township embraced fully one-sixth of the entire county. It was the second township within the present territory of the county, having been formed from a portion of Brother's Valley as a township of Bedford County in the year 1773. Townships organized subsequently, reduced the territory of Turkeyfoot, so that in 1848 it embraced only the present townships of Upper and Lower Turkey-Foot, which were organized as separate precincts in that year.

The following is a list of the taxpayers in 1796:

Peter Augusteen, David Ankeny, Gabriel Abrams, Anthony Brandeberry, Widow Briningham, James Black, Joseph Blanset, Jacob Bruner, William Baker, George Garnet, Joseph Biggs, Peter Bradford, Joseph Barkdue, Jacob Brandeberry, Henry Bumershire, John Bailey, Benjamin Bailey, Michael Brunei, Thomas Barney, Robert Brooke, John Brooke, Jesse Brooke, John Cunningham, Robert Cocherton, James Conner, Patrick Conner, John Collins, James Campbell, Robert Colburn, Lawrence Carney, John Clark, Thomas Coal, Matthias Carpenter, John Clark, Jesse Clark, Frederick Cosman, Oliver Drake, Isaac Dwire, Hugh Donaley, Nathaniel Davis, Peter Everly, Henry Everly, Daniel Ellis, Samuel Francis, Widow Forsha, Elias Flate, Peter Foust, Richard Green, Thomas Green, David Goodwin, Jacob Hartzel, Esq., Henry Hartzel, Thomas Huff, Sr., Nicholas Harzell, Michael Harmon, Abraham Huff, John Hamble,
John Hoyet, Charles Hoyet, George Hinebaugh, John Hoover, Andrew Henider, Widow Hall, Isaac Heston, Peter Helmick, John Henider, Martin Hileman, James Hall, Thomas Huff, Edward Harnet, Cabel Huff, Henry Homiller, Jacob Harbaugh, John Harbaugh, John Holget, George Isminger, Benjamin Jennings, Amos Johnston, William Johnston, John Jones, James Jones, Edward Kamp, Sr., Stephen Kamp, John Kamp, Sr., John Kamp, Edward Kamp, Christopher King, David King, Thomas King, Moses King, John King, John Kilpatrick, Michael Keever, John Keever, William Kamp, Jacob Knave, George Kitterman, David King, John King, James Lafferty, James Love, Elisha Loyd, Nehemiah Letts,
Wade Lafberry, Jonathan Lafberry, John Lighliter, James Lafferty, Joseph Lafferty, Robert McClintock,
James McMillen, Sr., John McMillen, Alexander McClintock, Burket Miner, William McMillen, John Morton, Peter Marks, James Moon, John McClean, Daniel McCarter, Jacob Miller, John Mitchel, James Mitchel, Thomas Mitchel, Lewis Mitchell, James McMillen, John Melick, Garret Matthews, Henry Myers, Sr., Henry Myers, Joseph Mountain, William McCloud, Samuel McClean, Matthew McGinnis, Isaac Morris, John Maxnesbit, Henry Nail, Hugh Nicholson, Robert Nicholson, John Nicola, Henry Nicola, Jacob Nave, Patrick Nelson, William Ogg, Peter Penrod, John Pringy, John Peck, James Porter, Bedwell Parnel, John Porter, William Pinkerton, Richard Pinkerton, Barney William Pitt, Andrew Ream, Jacob Rush, Tobias Ream, John Reed, Jeremiah Reed, Henry Rush, Benjamin Rush, Davld Ream, John Rush, , Widow Ruple, Michael Rawway, Jacob Ruple, Nancy Ruple, Henry Ridgly, Samuel Rugg, Joseph Ringer, , Peter Rush, Nicholas Rittenhouse, Jacob Snider, John Sink, Jacob Smith, Conrad Silbaugh, Daniel Storm, Thomas Spencer, William Spencer, Philip Smith, Isaiah Strawn, James Spencer, John Skinner, John Smith, Robert Skinner, Sr, Robert Skinner, Samuel Skinner, Nathaniel Skinner, Jacob Storm, Jesse Spencer, Vaughen Sampson, Coal Samuel Stringer, Jonathan Smith, William Smith, Benjamin Shoemaker, John Shee, William Sterling, Christian Snyder, Frederick Snyder, George Turney, William Tisue, William Tannehil, Conrad Weable, Nachel White, James Wright, David Woodmancie, Samuel Woodmancie, Frederick Wimer, Sr, Frederick Wimer, Widow Wilkins, George Woods, Esq., David Work, Jacob Waiss, Jr., Jonathan Woodsides, Frederick Younkin, John Wright, Jacob Younkin, Wilcox & Chew, John Youman.

John Mitchell, collector. Total valuation, real and personal, seventy-nine thousand three hundred and sixty-six dollars. Amount of tax collected, three hundred and ninety-six dollars and eighty-three cents.

The following persons, named on the TurkeyFoot tax-list for 1798, pursued other occupations than farming:

Jos. Beggs, weaver Jas. Conner, tailor Oliver Drake gristmill and sawmill Peter Everly, blacksmith Henry Hartzell, sawmill Thos. Huff, Sr., cooper Geo. Heinbaugh, weaver Geo. Isemenger wheelwright Jno. Jones, gristmill and sawmill Geo. Camp, Sr., smithshop and sawmill David King, gristmill Jno. Ring, tanner John Keever, blacksmith Jas. Love, weaver Jas. McMillen Sr., weaver Peter Marks, shoemaker John McLean, surveyor Dan. McCarter, sawmill Jac. Nave, Cooper Peter Penrod, mason (leg. Pringey, weaver Rich. Pinkerton, shoemaker Tobias Reams, tailor Henry Rush, smith John Smith, joiner Jona. Woodside, wheelwright John Youman, schoolmaster Sam.McLean,blacksmith Mich. Bruner, tanner Robt. Cockerton, schoolmaster Jas. Jones, blacksmith.

As is elsewhere stated (see general history), there is authentic testimony that several white men were settled at or near Turkey-Foot in 1768. The names of these pioneers were Henry Abrahams, Ezekiel Dewitt, James Spencer, Benjamin Jennings, John Cooper, Ezekiel Hickman, I John Enslow, Henry Enslow and Benj. Pursley. l

The colony which founded the Jersey Baptist church came From New Jersey to Turkey-Foot about 1774. This colony consisted of fifteen or twenty families, more or less intimately connected by ties of relationship and intermarriage. The early settlers, aside from the New Jersey colony, came mainly from Maryland and Virginia, following what was then a well-defined route of travel, the old Turkey-Foot road. This road came down White's creek to the Casselman, which it crossed near Harnedsville, crossed the Hog Back where Ursina now is, thence onward across Laurel Hill creek where the old stockade stood, and up the Lick river to Stewart's crossing, near Connellsville.

William Rush was born in New Jersey in 1727 settled in this township, on the farm now owned by John Minder, in 1773, and died in 1800. Among 'his children were Benjamin, Isaac and Jacob Jacob was born in New Jersey in 1755, and at the age of eighteen came to the wilds of Turkey-Foot with his father. He took up a tomahawk claim by deadening three trees, which entitled him to sixty acres of' land. He served in the revolutionary war and died in 1850. He married Mary Skinner, and was the father of eight children: Reuben, Highley (King), William, John, Sarah (White), Amos, Jacob and Mary (McMillen). William was born in 1784, and died in 1870. He was the father of twelve children. Jehu Rush, his son, lived in this township. In 1849 he purchased of Jackson Colborn the farm on which he now lives. Mr. Rush has been school director.

William Brook,- an early pioneer, came from the east and settled on Laurel Hill creek. He was a blacksmith, but devoted most of his time to fishing and hunting.

Henry Abrams, father of Gabrial Abrams, built the first house within the borough of Confluence. He had apple trees planted in 1768. The surveyors who appeared testified that he had been an early settler and had cleared the land. Henry Abrams was born 1720 in Wales . He came first to Staunton, Va. and moved to the Turkeyfoot area as early as 1765.

James Spenser Jr. settled in Turkeyfoot Twp about 1764 on that point of land, now Confluence Borough, between the Casselman River and the Laurel Hill Creek. By 1772 he had 21 acres of cleared land, which was above average. He did not have his land surveyed or patented until 1786. It contained about 250 acres, and is called "Good Fane" in the Patent. In 1798, he sold the land to Captain William Tissue and moved to Addison twp. and then on to Perry County, Ohio in 1806.

Henry Abrams and James Spencer both served in the Revolutionary War. Henry's name is on the DAR plaque in the center of the square in Confluence. He served his country as a 2nd LT in the Revolutionary war. The river has taken his final resting place. James is not on the list because he moved his family to Ohio to claim his government land. His daughter Rhoda, who married Benjamin Jennings stayed on and raised their children in Turkeyfoot and so did Gabriel Abrams.

A man named Tissue, who probably came from New Jersey, and eventually purchased James Spencer’s land, where Confluence now is, paid a convict's passage from Baltimore, having employed him to work on his farm. One day, when Tissue was away from home, the man took advantage of his absence, shut Tissue's two little boys up in a stable, murdered their mother, and robbed the house of a watch and other valuables. Then piling flax on the body of the murdered woman, he set fire to it and fled. He was followed by armed men, overtaken and shot. The shot took effect in his foot, partially cutting off his toes. The murderer then set his uninjured foot upon the wounded toes and wrenched th em off. He tried to escape, but-was captured and died in prison. Tissue afterward married Huldah Rush, daughter of William Rush.

Jacob Tissue inherited the land where Confluence now stands. His son Isaac, born in 1793, was the next owner. Isaac Tissue died in 1871. 'He married Mary Lenhart, and was the father of nine children: William, John, Peter, Hiram, Ross, Alfred N., Sophia (Huff),: Rachel (Chapman) and Betsey (Wilhelm). A. Newton Tissue bought the homestead, but in 1869 sold it to the company which laid out the town of Confluence In 1870 he purchased the farm he now occupies. Mr. Tissue is the owner of about four hundred and fifty-four acres. He served in the late war in CO. K, 11th Penn. Vols., from October, 1864,to June 1865.

Among the early settlers of Turkey-Foot were the Hannas, who located where Harnedsville now is. The last of the old stock, Maj. Alexander Hanna, died in 1881, aged seventy-nine He was a noted character in his day. Of a bright intellect and remarkable physical strength, he performed deeds of almost superhuman power. He was a noted wrestler, and, though never aggressive, was a dangerous antagonist when excited. It is related of him that he once had a feud of many years standing with a family in Addison township. One day the young men of the family, five in number, attacked him at a muster in 1828, and provoked a fight. The major handled the young men as though they were sticks. After one of them had cut him so badly that his entrails protruded, the wrangle was brought to a conclusion by some of the witnesses. At another time, when the National pike was building, some young-men, who were jealous of the major's reputation and wished to test his courage, fastened a bear in a dark pen and dared Hanna to enter. He went in, and when the bear attacked him, struck the animal with his fist and broke its jaw. Hanna served many years as justice of the peace, and was also major of militia and brigade inspector. Maj. Hanna weighed two hundred and forty pounds when eighteen years of age.. Among other well-attested feats which he performed was the lifting of a casting weighing fourteen hundred pounds.

Alexander Hanna, Sr., grandfather of the major, was born in Ireland in 1737, and died in Somerset county in 1809. His son James, born in Ireland in1770, came to America when young, and died in Somerset county in 1819. James served as representative to the legislature and state senator he was also brigade inspector for three 'counties. He married Ann Leech, and was the father of John, Mary, Thomas, James, Alexander, William, Phila Jane, Martha and Anna. John, the eldest son, was a member of the legislature, and held other responsible offices.

Capt. Andrew Friend, a native of the Potomac valley, in Virginia, a skilled Indian hunter and backwoodsman, moved to the Turkey-Foot region while Indians were still numerous here. He died in Somerset county, aged one hundred and one years. One of Friend's daughters married a Hyatt, a member of one of the early TurkeyFoot families.

John McNair, a revolutionary soldier, was a native of Scotland. After the war he settled near Harnedsville, where he died. Edward Harned married Ann, daughter of John McNair, for his second wife.

John Hyatt, one of the early settlers, was a native of Maryland. He came with several others, accompanied by a number of slaves, to Turkey-Foot soon after-the settlement began. While crossing the Negro mountain, a party of Indians fired upon them and mortally wounded one of the negroes, the strongest man in the company. A piece of a hollow log was found and placed over the negro to shelter him. Throwing it off, he said, " Save yourselves and never mind me I shall die soon." It is said that the Negro Mountain took its name from this circumstance.

John Hyatt died about 1840. He married Susan Friend, and their children were Cohn, Andrew, Charles, Jemima (Heinebaugh), Keziah (Heinebaugh), Sally (Tissue), Diana (Colborn) and Polly (Moon). John was born in 1791 and died in 1850. He was the father of A. S. Hyatt, of this township. A. S. has served as school director and auditor of the township.

Christopher King, an early settler, died in 1811. He lived on the farm known as the Stone House property. He married Elizabeth Hanna and reared a large family. John C. and Thomas were his sons. Thomas King was a state senator and held other public offlces From this county he removed to Ohio, where he was afterward elected judge.

Adam Snyder was a German and settled in this township in an early day. His eldest son, Adam, was born in Turkey-Foot in 1784 he removed to Brother's Valley, where he died.

Moses Collins was an early resident of this township. He lived on the place since known as the Jennings farm. He sold out to two brothers of the name of Skinner, and moved west of Laurel Hill, where he was one of the pioneers of Fayette county and built the first cabin in the Indian Creek settlement. His son Henry, a millwright and bridge-builder, learned his trade in Connellsville and worked at it in various parts of Somerset county. He built several bridges and mills, and built the first carding-mill in the county, at Ankeny's mill, Milford township. His son, Dr. William Collins, at present associate judge of Somerset county, came to Somerset from Fayette county in 1841, and has since resided here. He is the only lineal descendant of the original family now living in Somerset county. In 1840 he commenced a superficial geological survey of the eastern portion of the county, to determine its mineral value. He located and developed some of the first coal mines in the Meyersdale basin. He was also the first discoverer of limestone in this region, and was the first to urge its value for agricultural purposes. For seven or eight years he burned lime for use as a fertilizer, and by his efforts in this direction did much to enhance the value of farming lands in this section, and to him the farmers of the county are largely indebted for this valuable fertilizer.

Previous to: his investigations and operations in limestone, the soil in the greater portion of the county had become so impoverished by continued cropping and the consequent exhaustion of this necessary ingredient, that wheat and corn, especially the former, were not produced in sufficient quantities for home consumption. The farmers were at first slow to avail themselves of this valuable aid in the restoration of their lands, but being convinced of its great value, its use became general. In its introduction the doctor suffered serious pecuniary loss, and it is stated that the citizens of the county, recognizing the valuable service rendered by him in this direction, and desiring to show their appreciation of his efforts, elected him to the honorable position he now occupies.

In his operations in the burning of lime he found it necessary to construct an inclined railway from the quarry to the kiln. He made the patterns for the wheels, built the cars and put the railway in successful operation. This was the first inclined railway in the county, and for some time was an object of great curiosity. The doctor has for the last twenty-two years been engaged in the practice of his profession, that of dentistry, in the village of Somerset, and is still doing a large and successful business.

John Collins, a brother of Moses, also resided in Somerset county very early. He moved to the vicinity of Uniontown His son Thomas was afterward sheriff of Fayette county. Edward Harned was the first of the name in this county. His son Samuel, who laid out the village of Harnedsville, was a man of business activity, and at one time owned considerable property.

Andrew Ream ( the name was originally spelled Rihm) is believed to have come to the Turkey-Foot region in 1763. He was born in 1737, and died in 1818. His farm was the land on which the town of Ursina now is. Samuel, the last survivor of the family died several years ago. The grandfather of Andrew Ream came to Philadelphia with William Penn in 1663, and built fourteen houses in the town. John Ream was probably born in Loudoun County about 1759. Early in life he came to Turkey-Foot and lived upon the Ream farm, where Ursina now is. He died in 1839. He was married three times. His first wife died in 1792. The following is a translation of the German inscription upon the stone erected to her memory in the old graveyard below Ursina: " Here lies buried Anna Rosina Ream, wife of John Ream and daughter of Frederick Weitzel. In her married life of eight years and six months she bore four sons and two daughters. She died July 15, 1792. Her death was caused by the bite of a snake in twenty-four hours she was dead." Of the children of John Ream, Thomas, Samuel, Catharine (Jennings) and Mary (Weyant) reached mature years. Thomas was a miller, and ran the old gristmill at Draketown. He was killed by the falling of a tree one stormy night while returning from a visit to a sick girl. He married Barbara Haines, and was the father of Jacob, John, Moses, Thomas, Christina (Jennings) and Mary (Flanagan). Thomas is the only survivor. He lived at Draketown since his fourth year, farming and milling. He has been justice of the peace twenty years, and was recruiting officer of this township during the late war.

Benjamin Jennings was an early settler of Turkey-Foot, and located on a farm between Ursina and Confluence. He served throughout the revolutionary war, holding the rank of captain. He died upon the farm which afterward passed to his son Thomas. Capt. Jennings married Rhoda Spencer, and was the father of twelve children: Benjamin, James, Jesse, David, Israel, William, Thomas, Rhoda, Rebecca (Heinbaugh), Olly, Margaret (Nicola) and Mary (Nicola). Only Mary is living. Thomas was born in 1805, and died in 1872. He married Christina Ream, and was the father of John R., J. B. and Sarah (Buckman). The father of Capt. Jennings settled in the Turkey-Foot region before the revolutionary war. Benjamin entered the army at the age of eighteen. During the period of Indian depredations, the Turkey-Foot settlers under Capt. Jennings, resolved to follow and punish a band of Indians which had been plundering the neighborhood. In the hurry and excitement of preparing for the march across the Laurel Hill, Capt. Jennings forgot his rifle which he had left standing against a tree, near where Gus. Sellers now lives. The company marched all day, and halted at what is now called Davistown, where they camped. Jennings returned on foot across the mountain, and securing his rifle, was back among his men before they were aware of his absence. He was a large man and of great physical endurance. The following is a list of revolutionary soldiers who settled and died in the Turkey-Foot region: Jacob Rush, Sr., Capt. Benj. Jennings, Oliver Drake, Obadiah Reed, James Moon, George Beeler, Robert Colborn, John McNair, Oliver Friend. All are buried in the Jersey cemetery except the following: Jennings, old cemetery at Ursina McNair, at Six Poplars Friend, near Confluence.

The farm now owned by Jacob Sterner,situated at Confluence, was once the site of an Indian village. Mr. Sterner has unearthed a number of Indian skeletons in plowing, also ashes and traces of campfires. In 1878, as John S. Stanton and John H Glisan were plowing on this farm, they turned up a flat stone under which they found an earthen pot, of about a a quart's capacity, in shape and color like a coconut. Underneath this was found a human skull. The plowmen thought they had discovered a pot of gold, and were greatly disappointed when they found that such was not the case.

William Tannehill, one of the first settlers, was born in Preston county, West Virginia. About 1768 he came, a young man, to the farm now owned by Dr. Harah, near Draketown. The farm was first purchased by James Tannehill, brother of William, for two gallons of rum and a grubbing hoe. William Tannehill was a captain of militia in the war of 1812. For twenty years he served as constable he was also a merchant and auctioneer. He died in 1825. He married Delilah and was the father of Zachariah, Josiah, William and Nancy (Hyatt). Zachariah was born in 1798, and died in 1871. He was a noted hunter, and captured many deer and bears. On one occasion, having driven an old bear into a den where her cubs were, he took a hickory withe, made a slipnoose of it, and, watching his opportunity, threw it over the bear's head. Despite her struggles, she was drawn out and killed. He then entered the den and took out three young. It was with one of these cubs that Maj. Hanna fought, breaking its jaw with his fist.

Zachariah Tannehill married Mary Lanning, and was the father of eleven children, seven of whom are living. Eli, his eldest son, was killed at the battle of Petersburg. Joseph, the second son, was also in the war, and at Folly Island, South Carolina. Zachariah L., the youngest son, is a well-known farmer of this township, and has held various township offices. In early life he was a teacher. He was also a soldier in the late war.

Joseph Lanning was one of the early settlers, and came from New Jersey. He lived near the Jersey church. He died from the bite of a rattlesnake.

Robert Colborn, one of the earliest settlers of Turkey-Foot, was the progenitor of the Colborns of Somerset county. He passed his later years in this county, and was buried in the Jersey graveyard. His son Abraham was born in this county in 1788. He was the father of George Colborn, who died at Fortress Monroe in 1864, from disease contracted while serving his country. A. J. and G. W. Colborn are sons of George. G. W. Colborn has been a resident of Harnedsville since 1871, and has been in the mercantile business since 1879.

In 1815 John McCarty advertises in the Somerset Whig that he " continues to carry on the business of fulling and dyeing at Jonathan Drake's mill in Turkey-Foot township, Somerset county, where cloth will be thankfully received, neatly handled and carefully returned on the shortest notice, in case of good drying weather."

John Younkin was one of the early settlers of Upper Turkey-Foot. His son Jacob J., born on the old homestead, settled in Lower Turkeyfoot, on a farm purchased of A. J. Colborn. He married Dorcas Hartzel, and of their ten children five are living: Susanna (Koontz), Tabitha (Grim), Belinda (Grossman). Caldwell and Balaam. Balaam Younkin has resided in this township since 1868, and on his present farm since 1873.

Joseph Lichty, a native of Fayette county, came to Addison township, Somerset county, when young, and in 1855 settled on his present farm in Lower Turkey-Foot, purchasing two hundred and fifty acres of A. J. Colborn. Mr. Lichty has held numerous township offices.

Harrison H. Kemp, whose ancestors were early settlers at West Salisbury, was born at Petersburg, and has resided in Lower Turkeyfoot since 1857. He has a beautiful and pleasant home, and is largely engaged in the nursery business.

Hiram Frantz a native of Allegheny county, Maryland, came to this township in 1855. In 1881 he purchased his present farm of two hundred acres, near Confluence. Mr. Frantz served in the late war, in Co. B. 18th Penn. Cav.. enlisted at Pittsburgh, in February, 1864, and was mustered out in October, 1865.

Noah Scott, whose ancestors are mentioned in the history of Jefferson township came to this township in 1869, and for some time followed the business of contractor on the railroad in partnership with Col. E. D. Yutzy, building about ten miles of the Pittsburgh & Connellsville Railroad, besides the Berlin, Salisbury and Ursina branches. He is now engaged in farming, and has one of the finest homes in the township.

Harnedsville is a small and unimportant village, containing one church, one store, one tannery, one blacksmith-shop, one cabinetshop and one shoemaker-shop. The place takes its name from the Harneds, who formerly owned the land on which the village is.

Many interesting facts relative to early families and early events have been furnished for this chapter by Mr. Lee Forquer, of Ursina, who has made a special study of the early history of this region.

Ursina, occupies the site of the Ream farm, and was the point of one of the earliest settlements in the TurkeyFoot region. Evidences of Indian occupation are abundant. Arrow and spear heads and other stone implements of the aboriginal race are frequently found, even at this day, in the soil along the river. There is a tradition that the settlers once had a sort of rude fortification on the bank of the stream near the lower end of the town, close beside the tree that bears the name of "The Fort Oak." There is evidence that this was actually-the case, a part of the works still being visible, while some of the logs, covered by the water of the river, are tolerably well-preserved. It is said that the old fort-house was connected with the river by a covered passageway, so that the occupants of the building could procure water without exposing themselves to danger from the Indians.

Ursina received its somewhat fanciful name from the fact that it was laid out by Hon. William J. Baer, now the president judge of this district, and who at that time owned the land on which the town was plotted: The town was laid out in 1868, H. L. Baer and R. J. Botzer being the surveyors.

The first house was built by Ephraim Kreger, in 1868, and was occupied as a hotel for several years. It is now a private dwelling.

The first store was erected in 1868, by Isaac A. Jenkins. Mr. Jenkins still carries on the mercantile business. In 1881 he began the erection of a three-story frame addition to his store, 51 X 60 feet.

The first blacksmith-shop was built by Judge Baer, in 1868. John Anderson was the first blacksmith. The same year Judge Baer erected a sawmill, which was in operation for several years. A gristmill, which is still in operation, was added in 1871.

The first saddler was Amelius Hoffmeier the first shoemaker, Norman Lichliter.

While the railroad was building, and for several years succeeding, the town grew quite rapidly, and many good and substantial buildings were erected.

In 1871 a stave factory was built and put in operation by Norman Lichliter. The building has recently been converted into a keg factory, owned by the Citizens Oil Refining Company and operated by Edward Alcott.

The Ursina Branch railroad, built in 1871-2, was in operation for about three years, adding to the industries of this section the coal mines along its route.

A schoolhouse was erected in 1870 at a cost of about thirteen hundred dollars. The first teacher was John Griffith. In 1872 a two- brick school-building, 34X44 feet, with a seating capacity of three hundred, was erected at a cost of between seven thousand and eight thousand dollars. There is no better school building in Somerset county.

Ursina was incorporated as a borough in 1872. In 1883 it had an estimated population of six hundred, and contained seven stores, one blacksmith-shop, two saddleryshops, three hotels, three shoeshops, two millinershops, one keg factory, three churches and two physicians.

Col. E. D. Yutsy, who has been a resident of Ursina since 1869, is a native of this county and a son of Daniel Yutzy, mentioned in the history of Greenville township. Col. Yutzy was educated at Mount Union College, Ohio, and afterward taught school in Kentucky and Missouri. Returning to this county in 1859, he was elected county surveyor in 186O, and was also deputy prothonotary during the same term. In September, 1861, he entered the army in Co. C,54th regt. Penn. Vols.--- a company which he had organized and enlisted. After four days as a private he was elected captain, and held that rank until February 1, 1468, when he was promoted to the rank of major. On January 16, 1865, he was commissioned colonel of the consolidated regiment made up of the 3d and 4th Penn. reserves and the 54th regt. Penn. Vols. He was mustered out March 14, 1865. Col. Yutzy was a gallant soldier and has a noble military record. He participated in many severe engagements and was wounded at the battle of Winchester. After the war he was in the oil regions for a time, then became a railroad contractor and helped to build the Allegheny Valley, Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, Pittsburgh & Connelleville, and other well known roads. In 1874 he was elected state senator, and in 1876 re-elected to the same important office..

James Albright, merchant, was born and reared in Cumberland, Maryland. In 1859 he came to Somerset county and engaged in the mercantile business at Petersburg, for about four years. Thence he removed to Lavansville, where he followed the same occupation for about nine years. He then came to Ursina, built a store and engaged in business: Mr. A1bright has held several borough offices.

Thomas Holliday, a shoemaker by trade, settled at Paddytown in 1803. He died in 1854. Of a family of eleven children which he reared, there is only one survivor - Andrew, who is a shoemaker in Ursina.

John Morrow, a saddler by trade, settled in the town of Somerset in 1819. In 1869 he moved to Harnedsville, and purchased a house and two lots of land of Joseph Mountain. He died in 1878, having followed his trade for sixty-five years. Mr. Morrow was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought under Gen. Jackson. He married Elizabeth Blocher, and was the father of six children, of whom two are living - Albert G. and Margaret M. Albert G. Morrow is a native of Addison township. In 1871 he settled in Ursina, and built the saddler's shop in which he now carries on business.

Joseph A. T. Hunter is a native of Bucks county. He came to Ursina in 1872, and at first worked at shoemaking. In 1878 he engaged in the mercantile business, which he still follows. One of Mr. Hunter's sons, Napoleon B., served in the late war, in the 18th Penn. Cav. He contracted disease, died, and was buried at Harper's Ferry.

John Davis, who was born in Dauphin county, Pennsylvania, in 1810, settled in Lower Turkey-Foot in 1863, on the old Harned farm, near Harnedsville. He died in 1878. His son, Joseph B. Davis, who was born in Middle Creek township, came to Ursina in 1871, and engaged in the mercantile business as a member of the firm of Davis, Kuhlman & Co. Mr. Davis has since followed the same business. The present style of the firm is Davis & Coder. Mr. Davis has been school director and councilman of the borough for several years.

J. B. Jennings, grandson of Capt. Benjamin Jennings, elsewhere mentioned, moved to Ursina in 1873, and has since worked at shoemaking. He at first worked for Davis & Coder, and in 1875 bought out the firm. Mr. Jennings enlisted in the late war, and served from October, 1861, until July, 1863. He was wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia. He has held various borough offices, including those of councilman, school director and burgess.

William Shaw is a native of Indiana county, Pennsylvania. In 1866 he came to Somerfield, Somerset county, and in 1872 to Ursina, where he has followed gunsmithing and blacksmithing. Mr. Shaw has held nearly all of the borough offices. He is at present justice of the peace, having been elected to that office in 1882. He served through the Mexican war under Gens. Scott and Taylor. He enlisted in the war of the rebellion in Ohio, and served nearly two years. He was wounded at the battle of Malvern.

Peter H. Sellers is a native of Bedford county. His grandfather, Jacob Sellers, and his father, John Sellers, were both residents of the same county. P. H. Sellers came to Somerset county in 1866, and settled at Shanksville. In 1869 he came to Ursina, built the store which he now occupies, and engaged in the mercantile business which he still follows. Mr. Sellers has held various borough offices..

A. A. Miller is a grandson of Abraham Miller, elsewhere mentioned, who was the first sheriff of Somerset county. He was the first owner of the tannery now owned by J. Cunningham and sons, at Somerset. Of his ten children but two are living: Peter and Betsey. Abraham, son of Abraham, Sr., was born in Somerset in 1800, and died in 1867. His son, Abraham A. Miller, settled in Ursina in 1873, and followed railroading until 1880, when he engaged in his present business - hotel-keeping.

Odd Fellows. ---- Ursina Lodge, No. 806, I.O.O.F., was instituted July 12, 1873, with the following charter members: John Leslie, R. M. Freshwater, Samuel Thompson, W. S. Harah, J. R. Weimer, William Caldwell, Samuel Minder, Alex. Leslie, Ed. Korns, B. F. Snyder, R. H. Dull, W. W. Wolff, I. J. Miller, N. B. Lichliter, W. H. Sanner, S. R. Johnston, J. B. Davis, W. J. Jones, J. P. Miller, William Shaw and J. S. Peterman. The first officers were: W. S. Harah, N.G. W. J. Jones, V.G. N. B. Lichliter, Sec'y I. J. Miller, Ass't Sec'y S. Minder, Treas. Since the organization one hundred and sixteen members have been admitted. Present membership, fifty-six value of lodge property, two thousand dollars.

Grand Army. --- Ross Rush Post, No. 361, G.A.R., was organized July 23, 1883. The oflicers and charter members were as follows: Col. E. D. Yutzy, C. B. F. Snyder, S. V. C. G. W. Anderson, J.V.C. T. W. Anderson, Chap. Noah Scott, Q.M. William H. Kepler, O.D. Jackson Lenhart, O.G. LeRoy Forquer, Adj. J. B. Jennings, Jacob J. Rush. Andrew Holliday

William R. Thomas, Alfred M. Snyder, Harrison Younkin, Harrison Vansycle, John Enos, Andrew J. Cross, Samuel O'Neal, Abram A. Miller, Marcellus Andrews, Sylvester Herring, William Shaw, Charles Rose.

Ross Rush Post was named after Ross Rush, of Co. H. 86th regt. Penn. Vols., who was killed in an infantry charge at Petersburg, June 18, 1864. He was a son of Jacob Rush, and great-grandson of Jacob Rush, a revolutionary soldier.

Confluence takes its name from its location, which is at the junction of three streams -- the Youghiogheny and Casselman rivers and Laurel Hill creek. It is a growing, prosperous town, and its commerce is constantly increasing in extent and importance. It is the largest shipping point on the Pittsburgh division of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, between Cumberland, Maryland, and Connelleville, Pennsylva- nia. Its situation at the confluence of three important streams renders it the natural outlet for the business of a wide extent of country. A great deal of timber is brought down the river to this point, whence it is shipped by rail to various markets.

The town was laid out in 1870, under the direction of the Confluence Land Company, an association which purchased from A. N. Tissue, Jacob Sterner and Peter Meyers the land on which Confluence is situated. The town grew rapidly, and in 1873 was incorporated as a borough. In 1883 it contained a population estimated at four hundred and fifty.

The first house within the borough limits was erected by Henry Abrams, one of the pioneer settlers. After the town plot had been made, the first house was built by Andrew Bowlin, who still occupies it. The first store was opened by Van Horn & Liston in 1870. The first blacksmith and the first shoemaker came in 1871, and still work here --- John Stanton and T. B. Frantz.

An establishment for the manufacture of pottery and stoneware was erected by A. G. Black, in 1872. It does a large business.

Nearly all the charcoal made in Lower Turkey-Foot township is shipped from Confluence station.

Among other early industries of the borough was the tannery built by Joseph Cummins, its present proprietor. A factory for the manufacture of axlegrease was erected by a company from Westmoreland county, in 1876, but was operated only about eight months. A stave and heading factory, built by a Pittsburgh company in 1875 was in successful operation about two years.

Confluence now contains seven general stores, one hardware store, one drugstore, three hotels, one tannery, one steam sawmill, two blacksmithshops, two wagonshops, one shoemaker-shop, one millinershop, two churches, two physicians and one dentist.

The schoolhouse, erected in 1871, was used for the borough schools until 1882, when a two-story frame building, 38 X 48 feet, with a seating capacity of two hundred, was erected at a cost of about two thousand dollars.

Adam R. Humbert is a native of Milford township, where the family were early settlers. In early life he taught school. For thirty years he has worked at carpentry, since 1870 in Confluence. He served in the late war during two terms of enlistment. Mr. Humbert has held nearly all of the borough offices.

Levi W. Weakland is a native of Cambria county. From 1865 to 1872 he followed the shook and stave business in West Virginia. He then located in Confluence, and engaged in the lumber business and the manufacture of shooks and staves. In 1882 he entered into partnership with E. T. Nutter in the mercantile business, under the firm name of Nutter, Weakland & Co. Mr. Weakland has held various borough offices. The firm of which he is a member owns the timber on eighteen hundred acres of land in Addison township, and six hundred and fifteen acres of timber land in Fayette county, on both of which lots they have steam sawmills. They have shookshops at Casselman Confluence, Draketown Siding and Fort Hill. The industry is of great importance to the citizens of the timbered region of this part of the county.

A. Marshall Ross, son of Gen. M. A. Ross, of Petersburg, has followed the mercantile business from his youth. Since 1870 he has been located at Confluence. Mr. Ross was in Co. E, 133d regt. Penn. Vols., for nine months.

John Groff, a miller by trade, came from Germany in 1840 and settled in Brother's Valleytownship. His children were: Frederick, Simon, George G., Catharine (Engelder), Barbara (Custer), Margaret and Minnie (deceased). Frederick was elected state senator in the 36th district in 1878. He served in the war from September, 1861, to September, 1864, and was two months in Libby prison. He resides in Meyersdale. Geo. G. Groff built a store at Confluence in 1874, and engaged and is yet in the mercantile business. He is justice of the peace.

Confluence Lodge, I.O.O.F., was instituted December 12, 1872, with the following officers and charter members: F. R. Fleck, NAG. Chas. Strohm, V.G. James Baxter, Sec'y W. S. Mountain fain, Ass't Sec'y E. Valentine ,Treas. W. R. Mountain, David Morrison, Henry D. Bole, J. K. P. Shoemaker, James Richardson, Ellsworth McCleary, Sam'l Neighley, Robt. Wallace, James B. Cross, M. Tannehill, W. H. Bishop, James Klingensmith, William Kessler. Present membership' twenty-one value of lodge property, four hundred and eighty three dollars and fiftynine cents Cash in treasury, two hundred and eighty-three dollars and fifty-nine gents.

Draketown is a small village in Lower Turkey-Foot township, containing two small stores, a blacksmith-shop and a small number of houses. Oliver Drake settled at this place, probably about the time of the revolutionary war. About 1787 he erected a small gristmill. A mill erected by his son Jonathan, on the same site, in 1812, was burned a few years later. The present mill was built about 1819. He also built a woolenmill and a sawmill. These were probably the first industrial establishments in Lower Turkey-Foot.

A blacksmith-shop was opened at Draketown as early as 1812 by William Tannehill.

A tannery, built in 1854, by Hendrickson Welsh, is now owned and operated by Alfred Daniels.

The first schoolhouse was built about 1860, and rebuilt in 1875.

Turkey-Foot Baptist Church. --- This organization, which is more commonly known as the Jersey Baptist church, is the oldest Baptistchurch west of the Allegheny mountains. It is the oldest church of any kind in Somerset county, and perhaps' the oldest in Southwestern Pennsylvania. For many years after its organization, Maryland and Virginia settlers were among its members. while Sandv Creek Glades, Virginia, formed a portion of its parish. The Turkey-Foot church is the parent of all the Baptist churches included in a region hundreds s of miles in extent. The following is an exact copy of page seven of the minutes of the Turkey-Foot Baptist church: "The minutes of the proceedings of the church belonging to Turkey-Foot and Sandy Creek Glades. On Wednesday, the fourteenth day [of August], Anno Domini 1775, the Rev. Mr. Isaac Sutton and John Corbley met this church at the house of Moses Hall in Turkey-Foot, and after a sermon on the occasion they solemnly constituted a church in these places jointly consisting of the following members as subscribed to the succeeding covenant:

Robert Colburn, Jacob Rush, David Rush, John Rush, John King, Benjamin Leonard, James Mitchel Willets Skinner, Nicles Hartzell, Mary Rush, Mary Coventon, Mary Rush, Margaret Rush, Lucia Jones' Elizabeth Mountain, Sarah Skinner, Frankey Ketchem, Rebecca King."

April 5, 1789, William Blain was baptized and received into the church. July 4, 1789, Rebecca Blain was baptized and received into, the church. Among other names of members belonging to the church we find the Whittakers,. Melicks, Truaxes, Bosleys, Membles, Gordons, Kings, Joneses, Walls, Lobdills, Melotts, Manettas, Pitmans, Monys, Hannas, Tannehills, Woodmencys and Reams.

The first house was built in January, 1788. It was a two-story log structure with gallery, and was used as church, schoolhouse, and, tradition says, at one time as a blockhouse. While at tending, many of the early settlers brought their rides, which stood in a corner until service was concluded. The second house, a frame building, was erected in 1838 the third, also a frame, was finished in 1877, at a cost of twenty-five hundred dollars. At that time Mrs. Jane Brook, widow of John Brook and daughter of Hon. James Hanna, Sr., and her daughter, Mrs. Mary A. Forquer, paid to the building fund over twelve hundred dollars.

In 1862 Rebecca King bequeathed two thousand dollars to the use-of the church and in May, 1881, Mrs. Jane Brook donated one thousand dollars to be kept as a perpetual fund, the annual interest to be applied to paying the minister's salary.

The first church officers mentioned in the record are Robert Colborn and Isaac Dwire, elders, in 1795 Jacob Rush, appointed deacon, vice Reuben Skinner, in September, 1796 Robert Colborn was ordained elder and Jacob Rush deacon, October 8, 1796. An examination of the church records shows that the following ministers were serving as pastors at the dates given: Present at the organization, 1795, Isaac Sutton, John Corbley. October 19, 1799, Nathaniel Skinner, Jr., was ordained to the ministry by John Corbley and Henry Speers. Succeeding pastors: John Cox, 1817-19 James Fry, 1820-32 William French, 1826 John Thomas, 1832-9 Isaac Wynn, 1839-42 Garrett R. Patton, 1842-5 William Hickman, 1845-7 Cleon Kees, C Gilbert, Isaac Wynn, 1848 William Hickman, 1849 John A. Pool (ordained), 1849 G. Lanham, 1852-4 John Williams, 1854 William Ellis, 1854-7 J. Williams, 1857 B. F. Brown, 1860 J. Williams, 1861 J. R. Brown, 1866 J. R. Brown, 1868-72 William Barnes, 1872-3 N. B. Scritchfield 1873-4 J. E. Watters, 1874-7 Wm. P. Fortney, 1877-9 James R. Brown, 1879, present pastor. Membership in September, 1883, sixty five.

Church of God. -- The first church in Ursina was the Church of God, built in 1869, at a cost of about seven hundred dollars. The first pastor, Rev. William Davis, was succeeded by Revs. Miles Pritts, John Wood and Wm. H. Long. At present the church has a membership of about thirty. A church of this denomination, situated about three-fourths of a mile from Draketown, was erected in 1879, during the pastorale of Rev. Wm. H. Long. ' It cost about nine hundred dollars. The first deacons were Jehu Rush and Frederick Krieger This church has a small membership.

Lutheran. --- The Evangelical Lutheran church of Ursina was organized in 1869, and a house of worship was created the same year at a cost of about twenty-five hundred dollars. The pastors have been Revs. Peter Gheen, Wm. Triday, David T. Kooser, A. M. Smith, A. E. Felton and Wm. G. Gettle. The first church officers were John P. H. Walker and John Davis, deacons Arnold Kuhlman and Joseph Lichty, elders. Present membership, about forty.

Methodist Episcopal. -- The Ursina Methodist Episcopal church was built in 1871, at a cost of about three thousand dollars. The first pastor and his successors in order were: Revs. Wesley Davis, O. A. Emerson, H. J. Hickman, Theodore Shaffer, B. W. Hutchinson and N. B. Tannehill. The first Classleader was Norman Lichliter.

Confluence Lutheran Church. -- The first church in Confluence was erected in 1870-1, by the Evangelical Lutheran denomination. The house is a frame building, and cost about thirty-five hundred dollars. For list of pastors,' see sketch of Lutheran church at Ursina.Methodist Episcopal. --

The Confluence Methodist Episcopal church was erected in 1872, under the pastorale of Rev. Wesley Davis. It cost about four thousand dollars. For list of pastors, see history of the Ursina Methodist Episcopal church. The first trustees were Jonathan Frantz, A. G. Black, Daniel Mickey, William Pullin and Sebastian Tissue. First classleader Job M. Flanagan.

Draketown Methodist Episcopal Church.— This is a tasty and beautiful church, erected in 188O, at a cost of eleven hundred dollars. The first' trustees were A. S. Hyatt, Eli Conn and Thomas Ream. The first classleader. A. S. Hyatt the first pastor, Rev. W. P. Hutchinson, was succeeded by Rev. B. Tannehill, the present pastor. The membership is about thirty.

Methodist Episcopal. --- The Harnedsville Methodist Episcopal church was organized about 1855, by Rev. Jackson Endsley, the first preacher in the place, and under whose administration a house of worship was erected at a cost of about five hundred dollars. The present membership is about thirty.

Person:John McNair (8)

John became Lt. Col. John Miller MCNAIR of the 79th Regiment (Cameron Highlanders) (family letters) and possibly served until about 1856 in the Crimea (R. Huggard). In 1861 John visited his sister Mary (census). In 1871 he was maybe a Captain resident in 42nd Regiment at Aldershot, Hampshire (census). He died 1st quarter 1891, aged 53, in Kensington, London (bmd index). John Miller M’Nair, Lt Col, late 79th Highlanders, d. 28jan1891, aged 53, at 58 Courtfield Gdns, London (Glasgow Herald). Scottish archives have the probate registered 24mar1891 at non-Scottish court of Lt. Col. John Miller McNair of 50 Courtfield Gdns., South Kensington, Middlesex.
From “The new annual army list for 1860”, pub. 1995: 79th Regt. Of Foot (Cameron Highlanders). Lt. John Miller McNair, ensign 18aug1854, Lt. 9feb1855. John served at the siege and fall of Sebastopol from jul1855 and assault of 8sep (medal and clasp), served in the Indian campaign of 1858-9 including the siege and capture of Lucknow (medal and clasp).

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